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Biology ECA

Study Guide
by

Lori Richardson

on 29 April 2013

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Transcript of Biology ECA

Biology ECA Study Guide Cellular Structure and Chemistry Mater Cycles
Energy Transfers
Interdependence Genetics and the
Molecular Basis
of Heredity Evolution Cellular Reproduction You Are Ready! Questions may include understanding the basic molecular structure and function of the four major categories of organic compounds essential to cellular function, describing how work done in cells is performed by a variety of organic molecules, and by understanding the features that are common to all cells and to contrast those with distinctive features that allow cells to carry out specific functions. Questions may include understanding how the sun’s energy is captured and used to construct sugar molecules that can be used as a form of energy or serve as building blocks of organic molecules, recognizing how matter and energy cycle through an ecosystem, and understanding the relationship between living and nonliving components of ecosystems and describing how that relationship is in flux due to natural changes and human actions. 22-32%
8-13 Questions Questions may include explaining the process by which new cells are formed from existing cells, understanding how in multicellular organisms groups of cells cooperate to perform essential functions within the organisms, and describing the cellular processes that occur to generate natural genetic variations between parents and offspring. Questions may include describing how biochemical, fossil, anatomical, developmental, and genetic findings are used to determine relationships among organisms and how those relationships are then used to produce modern classification systems and understanding how modern evolutionary theory provides an explanation of the history of life on Earth and the similarities among organisms that exist today. 18-28%
7-11 Questions Standard 1: Cellular Chemistry B.1.1 Describe the structure of the major categories of organic compounds that make up living organisms in terms of their building blocks and the small number of chemical elements (i.e., carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, oxygen, phosphorous and sulfur) from which they are composed.

B.1.2 Understand that the shape of a molecule determines its role in the many different types of cellular processes (e.g., metabolism, homeostasis, growth and development, and heredity) and understand that the majority of these processes involve proteins that act as enzymes.

B.1.3 Explain and give examples of how the function and differentiation of cells is influenced by their external environment (e.g., temperature, acidity and the concentration of certain molecules) and changes in these conditions may affect how a cell functions. B.1.1 Describe the structure of the major categories of organic compounds that make up living organisms in terms of their building blocks and the small number of chemical elements (i.e., carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, oxygen, phosphorous and sulfur) from which they are composed. 2.3 and 2.4 Carbohydrates Carbon Hydrogen Oxygen
(CHO) 1:2:1 Organisms use carbohydrates as their main source of energy.

Monosaccharides: Simple sugars such as glucose and fructose.

Disaccharide: A compound made by joining to simple sugars together. Example - Table sugar is glucose and fructose joined together.

Complex Carbohydrates: Large macromolecules formed from monosaccharides as polysaccharides.

Animals store complex carbohydrates as glycogen and plants store is as either starch or cellulose. Lipids Carbon Hydrogen Oxygen
(CHO) Used to store energy, form membranes, and waterproof coverings.

Examples: Fats, oils, waxes, and steroids

Structure: A glycerol combined with fatty acids.

Saturated: The fatty acids contain the maximum possible number of hydrogen atoms

Unsaturated: The fatty acids contain at least one carbon=carbon double bond. Nucleic Acids Carbon Hydrogen Oxygen Nitrogen Phosphorus (CHONP) Store and transmit hereditary and genetic information.

Nucleotides: One phosphate, one sugar, one nitrogenous base (ATCG) Proteins Carbon Hydrogen Oxygen Nitrogen
(CHON) Used to control the rate of reactions (enzymes), regulate cell processes, form cellular structures, transport substances, and help fight disease.

Proteins are polymers of amino acids. There are 21 amino acids in the human body. B.1.2 Understand that the shape of a molecule determines its role in the many different types of cellular processes (e.g., metabolism, homeostasis, growth and development, and heredity) and understand that the majority of these processes involve proteins that act as enzymes. 2.3 and 2.4 What is an Enzyme? Nature's Catalyst Enzyme: A protein that acts as a biological catalyst.

Catalyst: Speeds up the rate of a chemical reaction and lowers the activation energy.

Enzymes play essential roles in controlling chemical pathways, making materials that cells need, releasing energy and transferring information. How do they work? Provide a site for reactants to react For a chemical reaction to take place, the reactants must collide with enough energy so the existing bods will break and new ones will form.

Enzymes provide a place for the reactants (substrates) to come together to react.

Substrates bind to the active site. The active site is specific for a particular substrate.

Temperature, pH and other molecules affect the activity of enzymes. Enzyme Shape 1...2...3...4 Primary: A long strand of amino acids linked together by covalent bonds

Secondary: Hydrogen bonds form between Oxygen, hydrogen, and Nitrogen. The most common forms are alpha helices and parallel/antiparallel betta sheets.

Tertiary: The spontaneous 3-d folding of the protein which is due primarily to interaction between amino acid functional groups and disulfide bonds.

Quaternary: This has to do with the number of protein subunits found in the enzyme and is usually maintained by a hydrophobic effect. B.1.3 Explain and give examples of how the function and differentiation of cells is influenced by their external environment (e.g., temperature, acidity and the concentration of certain molecules) and changes in these conditions may affect how a cell functions. 2.4 and 7.4 Differentiation Not all cells are equal Cell differentiation is a process in which a generic cell develops into a specific type of cell in response to triggers from the body or the cell itself.

This is the process which allows a single celled zygote to develop into a multicellular adult organism that can contain hundreds of different types of cells.

Regulatory gene: Switches which genes are turned on and off and decides what the cell will be.

Cell signaling: Growth factors send signals to undifferentiated cells to influence what the cell will be.

Epigenetics: Environmental factors decide what a cell will be and how it will behave. Levels of Organization From simplest to most complex OH MY! B.2.1 Describe features common to all cells that are essential for growth and survival. Explain their functions.

B.2.2 Describe the structure of a cell membrane and explain how it regulates the transport of materials into and out of the cell and prevents harmful materials from entering the cell.

B.2.3 Explain that most cells contain mitochondria (the key sites of cellular respiration), where stored chemical energy is converted into useable energy for the cell. Explain that some cells, including many plant cells, contain chloroplasts (the key sites of photosynthesis) where the energy of light is captured for use in chemical work.

B.2.4 Explain that all cells contain ribosomes (the key sites for protein synthesis), where genetic material is decoded in order to form unique proteins.

B.2.5 Explain that cells use proteins to form structures (e.g., cilia, flagella), which allow them to carry out specific functions (e.g., movement, adhesion and absorption).

B.2.6 Investigate a variety of different cell types and relate the proportion of different organelles within these cells to their functions Standard 2: Cellular Structure B.2.1 Describe features common to all cells that are essential for growth and survival. Explain their functions. B.2.2 Describe the structure of a cell membrane and explain how it regulates the transport of materials into and out of the cell and prevents harmful materials from entering the cell. B.2.3 Explain that most cells contain mitochondria (the key sites of cellular respiration), where stored chemical energy is converted into useable energy for the cell. Explain that some cells, including many plant cells, contain chloroplasts (the key sites of photosynthesis) where the energy of light is captured for use in chemical work. B.2.4 Explain that all cells contain ribosomes (the key sites for protein synthesis), where genetic material is decoded in order to form unique proteins. B.2.5 Explain that cells use proteins to form structures (e.g., cilia, flagella), which allow them to carry out specific functions (e.g., movement, adhesion and absorption). B.2.6 Investigate a variety of different cell types and relate the proportion of different organelles within these cells to their functions 7.2 7.3 7.4 and 10.1 7.2 and 7.3 7.2 8.2 8.3 and 9.2 7.2 and 13.2 7.2 7.3 and 7.4 7.2 and 7.4 You should know all the parts of the cell and their functions Phopholipid: Basic building block on membrane and regulates what comes in and goes out.

Glycolipid: Provide energy and used for identification.

Transport (membrane) protein: Allows larger molecules to enter the cell.

Cholesterol: Stability of the membrane and allows it to be fluid.

Glycoprotein: Used as cell identifiers.

Carbohydrate: Recognizes other cells in the body Mitochondria The powerhouse of the cell Chloroplasts How plants make energy Outer Membrane: Encloses the mitochondria

Inner Membrane: Highly folded to increase surface area. This is where ATP is created.

Cristae: The folds of the inner membrane.

Matrix: Contains a highly concentrated mix of enzymes that aid in the production of ATP. Outer and Inner Membrane: Encloses the chloroplast.

Stroma: Cytosol like fluid.

Thylakoids: Site of the light dependent reactions of photosynthesis.

Lumen: Membrane of the thylakoids where ATP is created.

Granum: A stack of thylakoids. Ribosomes are the sites of protein synthesis.

They act like a factory worker, reading the instructions on the mRNA and assembling the amino acids (carried in by the tRNA) in order.

The long strands of amino acids fold to create proteins. Cilia: Move and sweep material. Examples include in your trachea and in your bronchial epithelium

Flagella: Used to move and propel the cell forward. Blood Cells Nucleus?
Ain't nobody got time for that The function of blood cells is extremely simple, they act as little more than over-sized vesicles that carry chemicals around in the blood stream.

The ability to self-replicate is not needed in such cells when the bone marrow can produce them instead.

The Nucleus takes up a large portion of the energy a cell uses in its day to day operations.

By not having a nucleus, the cell has extra room for hemoglobin. Neurons Reaching out Neurons have specialized extensions that can receive and transmit electrical impulses.

On average, the neuron can transmit messages up to 120 meters per second or roughly 394 feet per second. Muscle Dark meat vs white meat Did you know that the amount of mitochondria in a muscle determines it color?

Dark meat, like chicken legs and wings, contain a lot of mitochondria. That is what gives it the dark color.

White meat, like chicken breast, has hardly any mitochondria. So it is lighter in color.

Why would legs and wings have more mitochondria than breast? 18-28%
7-11 Questions Standard 3: Matter Cycles
and Energy Transfers B.3.1 Describe how some organisms capture the sun’s energy through the process of photosynthesis by converting carbon dioxide and water into high-energy compounds and releasing oxygen.

B.3.2 Describe how most organisms can combine and recombine the elements contained in sugar molecules into a variety of biologically essential compounds by utilizing the energy from cellular respiration.

B.3.3 Recognize and describe that metabolism consists of all of the biochemical reactions that occur inside cells, which include the production, modification, transport, and exchange of materials that are required for the maintenance of life.

B.3.4 Describe how matter cycles through an ecosystem by way of food chains and food webs and how organisms convert that matter into a variety of organic molecules to be used in part in their own cellular structures.

B.3.5 Describe how energy from the sun flows through an ecosystem by way of food chains and food webs and how only a small portion of that energy is used by individual organisms while the majority is lost as heat. B.3.1 Describe how some organisms capture the sun’s energy through the process of photosynthesis by converting carbon dioxide and water into high-energy compounds and releasing oxygen. B.3.2 Describe how most organisms can combine and recombine the elements contained in sugar molecules into a variety of biologically essential compounds by utilizing the energy from cellular respiration. B.3.3 Recognize and describe that metabolism consists of all of the biochemical reactions that occur inside cells, which include the production, modification, transport, and exchange of materials that are required for the maintenance of life. B.3.4 Describe how matter cycles through an ecosystem by way of food chains and food webs and how organisms convert that matter into a variety of organic molecules to be used in part in their own cellular structures. B.3.5 Describe how energy from the sun flows through an ecosystem by way of food chains and food webs and how only a small portion of that energy is used by individual organisms while the majority is lost as heat. Standard 4: Interdependence B.4.1 Explain that the amount of life environments can support is limited by the available energy, water, oxygen and minerals and by the ability of ecosystems to recycle the remains of dead organisms.

B.4.2 Describe how human activities and natural phenomena can change the flow and of matter and energy in an ecosystem and how those changes impact other species.

B.4.3 Describe the consequences of introducing non-native species into an ecosystem and identify the impact it may have on that ecosystem.

B.4.4 Describe how climate, the pattern of matter and energy flow, the birth and death of new organisms, and the interaction between those organisms contribute to the long-term stability of an ecosystem. B.4.1 Explain that the amount of life environments can support is limited by the available energy, water, oxygen and minerals and by the ability of ecosystems to recycle the remains of dead organisms. B.4.2 Describe how human activities and natural phenomena can change the flow and of matter and energy in an ecosystem and how those changes impact other species. B.4.3 Describe the consequences of introducing non-native species into an ecosystem and identify the impact it may have on that ecosystem. B.4.4 Describe how climate, the pattern of matter and energy flow, the birth and death of new organisms, and the interaction between those organisms contribute to the long-term stability of an ecosystem. 3.2 8.1 8.2 8.3 and 9.1 8.1 9.1 and 9.2 1.3 7.4 8.1 and 10.4 3.2 3.3 and 3.4 3.2 3.3 3.4 and 8.1 3.1 3.4 4.2 4.5 5.1 and 5.2 3.4 4.3 5.2 6.1 6.2 6.3 and 6.4 5.1 5.2 and 6.3 3.1 3.3 3.4 4.1 4.2 4.3 5.1 5.2 and 6.3 Questions may include describing the basic structure of DNA and how this structure enables DNA to function as the hereditary molecule that directs the production of RNA and proteins, understanding that proteins largely determine the traits of an organism, and explaining how the genetic information from parents determines the unique characteristic of their offspring. Standard 5: Molecular Basis of Heredity B.5.1 Describe the relationship between chromosomes and DNA along with their basic structure and function.

B.5.2 Describe how hereditary information passed from parents to offspring is encoded in the regions of DNA molecules called genes.

B.5.3 Describe the process by which DNA directs the production of protein within a cell.

B.5.4 Explain how the unique shape and activity of each protein is determined by the sequence of its amino acids.

B.5.5 Understand that proteins are responsible for the observable traits of an organism and for most of the functions within an organism.

B.5.6 Recognize that traits can be structural, physiological or behavioral and can include readily observable characteristics at the organismal level or less recognizable features at the molecular and cellular level. B.5.1 Describe the relationship between chromosomes and DNA along with their basic structure and function. B.5.2 Describe how hereditary information passed from parents to offspring is encoded in the regions of DNA molecules called genes.

B.5.3 Describe the process by which DNA directs the production of protein within a cell. B.5.4 Explain how the unique shape and activity of each protein is determined by the sequence of its amino acids. B.5.5 Understand that proteins are responsible for the observable traits of an organism and for most of the functions within an organism. B.5.6 Recognize that traits can be structural, physiological or behavioral and can include readily observable characteristics at the organismal level or less recognizable features at the molecular and cellular level. Standard 7: Genetics B.7.1 Distinguish between dominant and recessive alleles and determine the phenotype that would result from the different possible combinations of alleles in an offspring.

B.7.2 Describe dominant, recessive, codominant, sex-linked, incompletely dominant, multiply allelic and polygenic traits and illustrate their inheritance patterns over multiple generations.

B.7.3 Determine the likelihood of the appearance of a specific trait in an offspring given the genetic make-up of the parents.

B.7.4 Explain the process by which a cell copies its DNA and identify factors that can damage DNA and cause changes in its nucleotide sequence.

B.7.5 Explain and demonstrate how inserting, substituting or deleting segments of a DNA molecule can alter a gene, how that gene is then passed to every cell that develops from it and how the results may be beneficial, harmful or have little or no effect on the organism. B.7.1 Distinguish between dominant and recessive alleles and determine the phenotype that would result from the different possible combinations of alleles in an offspring. B.7.2 Describe dominant, recessive, codominant, sex-linked, incompletely dominant, multiply allelic and polygenic traits and illustrate their inheritance patterns over multiple generations. B.7.3 Determine the likelihood of the appearance of a specific trait in an offspring given the genetic make-up of the parents. B.7.4 Explain the process by which a cell copies its DNA and identify factors that can damage DNA and cause changes in its nucleotide sequence. B.7.5 Explain and demonstrate how inserting, substituting or deleting segments of a DNA molecule can alter a gene, how that gene is then passed to every cell that develops from it and how the results may be beneficial, harmful or have little or no effect on the organism. 2.3 10.2 12.1 and 12.2 1.3 11.1 and 12.1 13.1 13.2 and 13.3 2.3 2.4 and 13.3 2.3 2.4 10.3 11.1 13.2 13.3 and 13.4 11.1 and 11.3 11.1 and 11.2 11.1 11.2 and 11.3 11.1 11.2 and 11.3 12.3 and 13.3 13.3 8-18%
1-7 Questions 8-18%
1-7 Questions Standard 6: Cellular Reproduction B.6.1 Describe the process of mitosis and explain that this process ordinarily results in daughter cells with a genetic make-up identical to the parent cells.

B.6.2 Understand that most cells of a multicellular organism contain the same genes but develop from a single cell (e.g., a fertilized egg) in different ways due to differential gene expression.

B.6.3 Explain that in multicellular organisms the zygote produced during fertilization undergoes a series of cell divisions that lead to clusters of cells that go on to specialize and become the organism’s tissues and organs.

B.6.4 Describe and model the process of meiosis and explain the relationship between the genetic make-up of the parent cell and the daughter cells (i.e., gametes).

B.6.5 Explain how in sexual reproduction that crossing over, independent assortment and random fertilization result in offspring that are genetically different from the parents. Standard 8: Evolution B.8.1 Explain how anatomical and molecular similarities among organisms suggests that life on earth began as simple, one-celled organisms about 4 billion years ago and multicellular organisms evolved later.

B.8.2 Explain how organisms are classified and named based on their evolutionary relationships into taxonomic categories.

B.8.3 Use anatomical and molecular evidence to establish evolutionary relationships among organisms.

B.8.4 Understand that molecular evidence supports the anatomical evidence for these evolutionary relationships and provides additional information about the order in which different lines of descent branched.

B.8.5 Describe how organisms with beneficial traits are more likely to survive, reproduce, and pass on their genetic information due to genetic variations, environmental forces and reproductive pressures.

B.8.6 Explain how genetic variation within a population (i.e., a species) can be attributed to mutations as well as random assortments of existing genes.

B.8.7 Describe the modern scientific theory of the origins and history of life on earth and evaluate the evidence that supports it. B.6.1 Describe the process of mitosis and explain that this process ordinarily results in daughter cells with a genetic make-up identical to the parent cells. B.6.2 Understand that most cells of a multicellular organism contain the same genes but develop from a single cell (e.g., a fertilized egg) in different ways due to differential gene expression. B.6.3 Explain that in multicellular organisms the zygote produced during fertilization undergoes a series of cell divisions that lead to clusters of cells that go on to specialize and become the organism’s tissues and organs. B.6.4 Describe and model the process of meiosis and explain the relationship between the genetic make-up of the parent cell and the daughter cells (i.e., gametes). B.6.5 Explain how in sexual reproduction that crossing over, independent assortment and random fertilization result in offspring that are genetically different from the parents. 10.2 1.3 and 13.4 1.3 7.4 and 10.4 11.4 11.4 B.8.1 Explain how anatomical and molecular similarities among organisms suggests that life on earth began as simple, one-celled organisms about 4 billion years ago and multicellular organisms evolved later. B.8.2 Explain how organisms are classified and named based on their evolutionary relationships into taxonomic categories. B.8.3 Use anatomical and molecular evidence to establish evolutionary relationships among organisms. B.8.4 Understand that molecular evidence supports the anatomical evidence for these evolutionary relationships and provides additional information about the order in which different lines of descent branched. B.8.5 Describe how organisms with beneficial traits are more likely to survive, reproduce, and pass on their genetic information due to genetic variations, environmental forces and reproductive pressures. B.8.6 Explain how genetic variation within a population (i.e., a species) can be attributed to mutations as well as random assortments of existing genes. B.8.7 Describe the modern scientific theory of the origins and history of life on earth and evaluate the evidence that supports it.
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