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The Rise and Fall
Transcript of The Rise and Fall
-The Malolos Congress was known only for its two significant acts: the ratification of the proclamation of Philippine independence at Kawit and the drafting of the Constitution.
-It is said that the legislative branch was more powerful than the executive branch.
-One of the powers of the legislative was to elect the President of the Republic who would select the members of the secretaries of the Cabinet. The Chief Justice of the Court was to be elected by the Congress; the administration of justice was vested in the Supreme Court. The Cabinet of the Republic -Apolinario Mabini was selected as the president of the Cabinet, also served as the secretary of the Foreign Affairs.
-Teodoro Sandiko was appointed the secretary of the Interior; Baldomero Aguinaldo – war; Mariano Trias – finance; and Gracio Gonzaga – welfare, education, public works, industry, and commerce. The decree of June 18, 1898 – Mabini reorganized the local governments and ordered that the electors would select the municipal heads and delegates (tenientes) who would handle matters regarding peace and order, taxes and property, and the civil registry. The decree of June 20, 1898 -provided for the retention of the Spanish penal code unless some of its provisions were contrary to those of the government. The Popular Assembly hears the civil cases and its decisions could be send to the Provincial Council. El Heraldo de la Revolucion, changed to Indice Oficial, and finally to Gaceta de Filipinas -this organ publicize the decrees of the government, news and Tagalog poems which are aiming to promote nationalism among their readers Universidad Cientifico Literaria – a university established to free the government from the grip of the friars in our country’s educational system.
-Dr. Joaquin Gonzales became the first president of the university.
- It was housed inside the Barasoain Church convent.
-Many members of the Malolos Congress served as professors of medicine, law, pharmacy and liberal arts subjects such as English, French, and Spanish.
-Instituto Burgos – equivalent of a high school and trade school Academia Militar – established on October 25, 1898 to develop a professional corps of officers for the armed forces
-headed by a former lieutenant in the Spanish Army who denounced Katipunan; Colonel Manuel Sityar served as its superintendent.
-The military school was brainchild of Gen. Antonio Luna.
-It also holds classes at the Barasoain Church convent
*This schools functioned until the outbreak of the Filipino-American war in February 1899* Diplomatic Service Diplomatic representatives were appointed to look after the advancement of the country’s interests overseas. -Most of them are the Filipino members of the Philippine Central Committee which was formed by Filipino exiles Felipe Agoncillo and Jose Ma. Basa.
-The Committee was formalized by Gen. Aguinaldo when he issued decrees on June 24 and August 10, 1898; Felipe Agoncillo was tasked to plead the cause of the country’s independence in the United States, and was sent to Spain as a representative
-Other diplomatic representatives were Mariano Ponce and Faustino Lichauco for Japan; Antonio Regidor for United Kingdom; Juan Luna and Pedro Roxas for France; and Eriberto Zarcal for Australia. *The Hong Kong Junta - handled purchases of supplies for the Filipino army; committee’s finances were managed by Galicano Apacible
Galicano Apacible tried to meet with Americans in pursuing foreign recognition. He proposed free trade with the United States and the establishment of American naval bases. He also offered the income of the port of Manila and two other ports as a guarantee for the $20 million the U.S. paid to Spain in exchange for the recognition of Philippine Independence. But these proposals were ignored by the Americans.
During this time, the Filipino diplomats lived in third class accommodations. They had sacrificed a lot and became financially poorer. Victory of the Autonomists: The Fall of Mabini and Luna’s Assassination. -With the divisions occurring within Aguinaldo’s government, Mabini urged the people to continue their struggle for independence. He was willing to have the country independent but under the protection of the United States.
-Paterno and Buencamino were amenable to accept the autonomy under the United States.
-The first Philippine Commission under Jacob Schurman was authorized to offer autonomy to the Filipinos.
-The members of the Philippine Congress asked Aguinaldo to relieve Mabini from his duties as head of the Philippine Cabinet.
-On May 7, 1899, Aguinaldo notified Mabini that a new Cabinet was being formed under Paterno. Mabini was replaced by Paterno as President of the Cabinet and his position as Secretary of affairs was taken by Buencamino. -As the autonomists have been victorious, the fate of the Republic has been sealed.
-The divisions are also evident at the Hong Kong Junta; while Apacible and Agoncillo were for the Philippine Independence; other members like Basa and Cortes were for Autonomy.
-It is believed that Cortes paid Admiral Dewey so he would not bombard his properties. Other members simply lost in the struggle and were minding their own businesses. -Luna is known for his sharp tongue and terrible temper; because of this he created enemies among the autonomists and other people. He once called soldiers who refused to fight as “sundalong mantika” and ordered that all civilians must move all their property and burn them to deny their use by the Americans.
-He blamed leaders of the Kawit Company for the defeat of his counterattack in Manila. Gen. Luna ordered its officers to be punished. -He also accused Buencamino’s son Joaquin of cowardice. The elder Buencamino came in support of his son and brought up the issue of Luna’s action at Bagbag. Luna then slapped and pushed Buencamino to the floor.
-June 2, 1899, Luna received a telegram asking him to see Aguinaldo at his headquarters in Cabanatuan/ -June 5, Luna let his headquarters at San Isidro accompanied by a cavalry escort of 16 men. Entering the town he was accompanied by Col. Francisco Roman and Capt. Eduardo Rusca and a few soldiers. He arrived at the Cabanatuan Convent which served as Aguinaldo’s headquarters.
-Unexpectedly he encountered Felipe Buencamino. It is said that Aguinaldo had left earlier and had gone to Bamban , Tarlac. Angry words were were exchanged between Luna and Buencamino and a rifle shot was heard outside. Gen. Luna then went down to punish the soldier who fired his rifle. -Unfortunately for Luna, the Kawit men led by an officer named Colonel Pedro Janolino attacked him. Janolino struck Luna whit his dagger while his men shot and stabbed Luna. His aide Col. Roman tried to help him but he was also mowed down by Luna’s killers however the other aide, Captain Rusca, has escaped by crawling inside the Cabanatuan Church.-Buencamino then went outside to ask if any of the Kawit men were hurt. He then ordered that Luna’s body be searched and retrieve the telegram which sent Luna to Cabanatuan.-June 8, Secretary of the Interior Severino de las Alas who investigated the deaths of Luna and Roman placed the fault entirely on the two men. The report of de las Alas concluded that the incident was a result of “military collision” and Luna “provoked the sentinel and guards of the honorable President.” Furthermore, Luna and Roman also “kicked and insulted” them and having revolvers discharged against them by both men. The sentinel and the guards then had to use firearms against the unjust aggression of Luna and his aide, both of whom were instantly killed. -By the time of Luna’s death, Aguinaldo conducted a loyalty check of his officers and weeded out those who were loyal to Luna.-The death of Luna demoralized the Filipino forces and many of them gave up their struggle for independence.-Meanwhile, the Americans drove out the Filipino forces under Gen. Pio del Pilar from Morong and Taguig and seized Calamba. With naval weaponries, the Americans captured the areas under Gen. Baldomero Aguinaldo consisting of Parañaque, Las Piñas, Kawit Bacoor and Imus. Filipino forces were suffering from severe shortage of ammunition while Americans were well supplied. Resistance from the enemy was becoming passive or limited to guerilla attacks.-April 23, 1899, Filipino forces under Gen. Gregorio del Pilar repulsed an American force under Gen. Franklin Bell at Quigua(Plaridel, Bulacan). Col John Stosenberg was killed in the battle.-In Misamis, the Americans were almost decimated at Makahambus Hill on June 4 1900 while trying to take Filipino positions. -At Pulang Lupa, Marinduque, Filipino forces under Col. Maximo Abad captured 50 American soldiers under Captain Deveraux Shields on September 13, 1900. -Another Filipino victory was at Mabitac, Laguna where Filipino forces under General Juan Calilles defeated an American force under Colonel Benjamin Cheatham on September 17, 1900. -December 9, 1899 “The greates blow against the Americans”, Filipino sharshooters shot and killed Maj. Gen. Henry Lawton in San Mateo. Lawton was the highest ranking American soldier to be killed in the war.-These Filipino victories were however temporary and few and were not enough to turn the of the war. FAVORING AUTONOMY INSTEAD OF INDEPENDENCE -General Aguinaldo was aware that Filipinos were divided in two parties: favoring absolute independence, preferring a protectorate under the United States.
-October 25, 1898, in a conversation with Brigadier Gen. Whitter, Aguinaldo said that he was waiting which side would have the majority.
Whitter: it would be useless to favor complete independence because the Philippines lacked a navy and capital needed for the development of the country, and that it needed an element of strength to ensure the retention of the islands.
Aguinaldo: the civilized nations would ensure that the Filipinos would not lose their territory.
Whitter: these “civilized nations” were now controlling and holding Chinese territory.
Aguinaldo: the United States (would) “furnish the navy, while Filipinos held all the country and administered civil offies with its own people.
Aguinaldo was joined by his chef adviser, Felipe Buencamino: I could be certain that if a protectorate were granted, they (he and Aguinaldo) would do their best to have it accepted by the people on the same lines that I have stated, agreeing with me fully that to hold one island and giving the oher islands to other powers would be most unfortunate, and not to be considered.
-From this conversation, Whitter concluded that there “was a great desire for our protection, for the improvement of their (Filipino) people materially and intellectually, the wish to send their young people to America for education.”
-Many officials in the Malolos government especially members of Congress favored autonomy under the United States because American rule assured them of stability, and being members of the landed elite, their properties would be at stake in case of a war with the Americans. -Antonio Luna denounced those who favored autonomy as traitors and ordered their arrest.
-Writing as editor-in-chief of La Independencia, Luna attacked Buencamino and Padre Paterno who was president of the Philippine Congress. “DEATH TO AUTONOMY”, he cried.
-Luna had them arrested and tried to have them sent to exile but were quietly released under the orders of Aguinaldo. Luna then tried to resign as Director of War but was refused. INTRIGUES AGAINST MABINI -Apolinario Mabini is another advocate of absolute independence. He proposed that the US treat the $20 million as a loan to the Philippines which would be eventually repaid.
He was amenable in granting concessions to the Americans like the provision of naval bases for their navy but these bases should be in far and less inhabited places in the country. Batanes is one of the bases.
He proposed that the world powers guarentee the neutrality of the Philippines by granting free trade rights with all of them.
-Despite Mabini’s potentially productive suggestions, these were practically ignored by Aguinaldo.
-Many members of the Philipinne Congress were envious of him because of his closeness to Aguinaldo calling him the Camara Negra or the Dark Chamber of the President. -When Mabini opposed the role of Congress drafting a Constitution, its members accused him of favoring dictatorship.
-After Aguinaldo nominated him for the position of Chief Justice of the Supreme Court, Mabini proposed that the army should have custody of those who would “impede the cause of independence.”
-Mabini’s actions were enough to spread fear among his enemies, Pedro Paterno, Ambrosio Rianzes Bautista and Felipe Buencamino, who also had their eyes on the position of chief justice. His opponents began spreading lies that he became a paralytic because of venereal disease and that his disease could affect his mind. Mabini defended himself saying that his disability was not venereal in nature and that his mind was not affected by his immobility.
-Aguinaldo was forced to withdraw his nomination and installed instead Gracio Gonzaga as Chief Justice of the Supreme Court. -Mabini soon lost out to the autonomists after Buencamino decided to form a “Peace Commission” to discuss autonomy under the Americans.
-Mabini was forced to resign as president of the Cabinet and recommended Antonio Luna to take his place but was replaced instead by Paterno.
-Mabini’s resignation marked the victory of autonomists in the Malolos Republic. America decides to take all of the Philippines : Benevolent Assimilation Nov. 21 - Americans --> Spanish
-$ 20 million –for improvements done (3 centuries)
Dec. 10 –Treaty bet. US and Spain =signed
Dec. 21- McKinley issued his “benevolent assimilation” - administration’s intention for Philippines
*not as invaders but as friends to win the respect of the inhabitants individual rights and liberties, prove to them that the mission of US is one of benevolent assimilation “gift from the gods”
france/ germany ( commercial rivals)
Decision of McKinley
Do whatever we can do best
*Americans arrived in manila
-expedition to occupy Iloilo (December)
american = 20,551 (troop levels)
aguinaldo did not risk to fite evacuate areas in manila
-Gen Elwell Otis (American commander)
Ordered to occupy all of the country
*Aguinaldo ordered his forces to prepare for war
*some Americans were against the acquisition of Philippines Jan. 21- Aguinaldo ratified the constitution
Jan 23- inaugurated Philippine republic ( barasoain church)
-sent seculars to the consuls of germany , Britain, france, russia, Holland, us, Italy, and other countries to recognize the new Philippine Republic
-aguinaldo appealed to the patriotism of the Filipino people to defend their country’s independence War in Visayas
-Revolutionary leaders turned down an American demand on February 10 to allow American troops to land in Iloilo. The Filipinos under Juan Yusay insisted that they would negotiate with the Americans on the bases of the recognition of the independence of the Philippines.
-Gen. Miller who has been sent to occupy the city rejected Yusay’s reply.
-February 11, the Americans bombarded the city and Gen. Martin Delgado ordered the burning of the city. The Filipinos then retreated inland. Having captured Iloilo, Miller then sent the gunboat Petrel to demand the surrender of Cebu on February 21.
-February 22, the American landing party did not only occupy the fort but also the government house and later arricals also occupied the neighboring towns of Talisay, San Fernando, Carcar, San Nicolas, Minglanilla, San Fernando and Elpardo.
-The revolutionaries under Aracadio Maxilom denounced as traitors the Filipino leaders who turned over the province to the Americans and swore to punish them.
-The revolutionaries in the island resorted to guerrilla warfare. Fighting in Iloilo The Capitulation of the Elite in Negros
-In Negros, the leaders of the island submitted to the Americans without a show of force nor a protest following the fall of Iloilo to the Americans
-A military district was formed on orders of Gen Otis and the people of Negros were allowed to convene and draft a constitution was never given serious consideration by McKinley.
-The capitulation of the Negrense leaders convinced other leaders in the island to abandon the cause of independence The Capitulation of the Elite in Negros -In Negros, the leaders of the island submitted to the Americans without a show of force nor a protest following the fall of Iloilo to the Americans
-A military district was formed on orders of Gen Otis and the people of Negros were allowed to convene and draft a constitution was never given serious consideration by McKinley.
-The capitulation of the Negrense leaders convinced other leaders in the island to abandon the cause of independence
Overthrow of Gonzalezes in Misamis and alternative with the Moros
-In 1899 Americans arrived in Mindanao. The Filipinos in Cagayan , Misamis resisted and later surrendered because of their superior arms.
-In Butuan, a pro-American Filipino under Prodencio Garcia arrested 2 Fil. leaders Wenceslao and Juan Gonzales (brothers) ; they were executed in Cortez
-The American under Gen. John C. Bates negotiated with the Sultan and the General entered into a treaty which allowed the Americans to occupy Jolo. -The Sultan was allowed to collect duties and taxes in theb areas that are not occupied by the Americans; they agreed to pay sleries to the Sultan and the Islamic religion was to be respected.
-Conclusion: with the Bates treaty, the Bates treaty, the Americans were free to focus their attention on the war in the northern islands. Fugitive Republic -The Americans landed in Lingayen hoping to trap Aguinaldo.
-The landing cut off Aguinaldo form the rest of his troops leaving him with a small rear guard under Gen. Del Pilar.
-The army was disbanned.
-Aguinaldo fled along the Ilocos coast and then decided that they would cross the Cordilleras to lose the Americans.
-Tirad Pass- Gen. Del Pilar and 52 other Filipino soldiers lost their lives who fought and a last stand to give Aguinaldo a wide berth between him and his pursuers.
-Aguinaldo surrendered the women and his wife. -Aguinaldo then entered Cagayan Valley where he held out until the Americans, employing a clever ruse, finally captured him on March 23, 1901.
-He then eventually swore allegiance to the Americans. He then called on Filipinos resisting the Americans lay down their arms.
Guerilla Warfare and Atrocities Guerilla – a person who engages in irregular warfare especially as a member of an independent unit carrying out harassment and sabotage. -The fighters mingles with the populace by day as ordinary farmers but assembled at a moment’s notice by their warlord. They lived their lives as an ordinary citizen and fulfill their duties as guerillas by the time appointed by their warlord. The Americans resorted to reconcentration to keep the guerillas from acquiring more support from the people.
-Entire communities were uprooted and burned. The occupants or citizens of these said communities were relocated in one place and were monitored. Going outside the relocation area would be dangerous since they could be shot. When a civilian desires to join the relocated area, he/she should bring a white flag and shout “amigo” or “friend”.
-Aside from uprooting and burning the communities, the guerillas also destroyed the citizen’s excess food stocks as well as farm animals which could be consumed or as assistant for farming. This resulted to famine.
-The enemy also tortured captives to make them squeal on the resistance. Among what they did were “water cure”, burying of their captives alive, lopping their ears and noses, slicing their lips off, and others cut the tendons of their feet.
-The Americans relied on Filipinos who were willing to betray their countrymen. They worked for the Americans as guides, spies and informants.
-The Filipino revolutionaries consumed all of the resources of the populace through over taxation and took possession of their enemies’ properties. They robbed and looted the areas they took over.
-Due to the assassination of Gen. Luna, many revolutionaries found it convenient to surrender to the Americans.
-Simeon Ola of Guinobatan, Albay surrendered in place of Malvar, becoming arguably the last Filipino general to surrender.
-Filipino guerillas disguised themselves as workers and attacked American soldiers who were taking their breakfast and this so-called massacre killed 72 Americans however, also killed 28 of the attackers. This event provoked the Americans and received an order from Gen. Jacob Smith to “pacify Samar” and kill everyone over 10 years old who can carry a bolo or rifles.
-Macario Sakay a veteran Katipunan member formed the New Katipunan and the Tagalog Republic, called Katagalugan after Bonifacio's, in Southern Luzon. He is also the general who attempted to form his own Republic, and the pulajanes, colorum or Dios-Dios groups of assorted provinces, led by messianic leaders.
-The revolutionary elite capitulated ordinary peasants which were long oppressed by the Spanish Colonial government. The native elite continued the struggle which they believed would free them from exploitation.
-Some of the influences that affected their characteristics were Christianity, animism and folk beliefs which was why they believe their leaders to have supernatural powers.
-In July 1901 the Philippine Constabulary was organized as an archipelago-wide police force to control brigandage and deal with the remnants of the insurgent movement. After military rule was terminated on July 4, 1901, the Philippine Constabulary gradually took over from United States army units the responsibility for suppressing guerrilla and bandit activities.