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Breast Cancer and Cervical Cancer PPT

OB Class 2013
by

Maylene Gonzalez

on 18 June 2013

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Transcript of Breast Cancer and Cervical Cancer PPT

Health Promotion Project
Breast Cancer
&
Cervical Cancer

What is Breast Cancer?
What causes Breast Cancer?
The cause is unknown. Many risk factors
Signs & Symptoms
-Breast Cancer is a malignant tumor of the breast
that begins in the breast tissue. It can be classified as local (confined to the breast), regional (invaded surrounding tissue) or distant (metastasized).
-Breast cancer can occur in both women and men but it is far more common in women.
- It is the second most common type of cancer diagnosed in women in the U.S.
The most common type of breast cancer is
cancer that begins in the milk a.k.a. ductal
carcinoma.
can increase your chance of developing breast cancer. But it is not yet known how some of those risks factors cause the cells to become cancerous. The body's cells reproduce themselves throughout your lifetime. Breast cancer occurs when that control is lost and cells begin to divide at unusually high rate like all the other types of cancers.
Early Stage: Asymptomatic. Patient may have a painless mass which can also be hard, irregular, delineated, fixed or non-tender.
-Patient may experience breast pain
-Thickness, swelling, skin irritation or distortion of breasts
-nipple abnormalities: Look out for bleeding or clear discharge, retraction, tenderness unilateral (one breast)
-Look out for nipple turning into like the orange peel skin a.k.a. Peau d' orange and dimpling
Complications
Breast cancer can have recurrence meaning it can come back even after obtaining treatment. If it does return, it may be at the same site (local recurrence) or at a different site in your body like liver,lungs and bones (distant recurrence). Recurrence can occur months or years after your initial treatment.
Risks Factors
No single trigger or cause has been identified for breast cancer. The following risks factors can increase a women's chance of developing breast cancer:
1-Age (It is more common in women over the age of 50
2-Family History (1st degree relatives) For example: Mother and sister
3-Genetics (gene mutations: BRCA-1 &BRCA-2) genes linked to breast cancer
4-Previous HX of Breast cancer
5-Age of menstruation (< age 12) under 12 years of age
6-Late menopause over the age of 55
7-Age of pregnancy (women who haven't had children or have children after the age of thirty
8-Radiation over exposure
9-Never breastfed a child
10-Alcohol consumption
11-Hormone replacement therapy used for more than 5 years
Diagnostic Tests
-History and physical examination would be performed by the doctor.
-A mammogram will be ordered. It is a low level x-ray that will show abnormal areas in the breasts. An ultrasound can also be done if needed to see if the lump is fluid filled cyst or solid growth.
-Using a needle, fluid can be removed from a cyst to check if it contains cancerous cells. A solid lump must be analyzed under a microscope. Three different forms of biopsies can be done:
1-Needle biopsy-A fine needle is inserted into the lump and cells are drawn out with the needles.
2-A core biopsy-A sample of breast cells and tissue is removed for examination.
3-Surgical Biopsy-an operation that removes the whole lump and some normal tissue around it. Local or general anesthesia can be used.
-CT' Scan, X-rays and MRI's will be done if the cancer has spread to other organs and tissues.
Treatments
Treatment depends on the individual circumstances like the rate of growth, how it responds to treatment, and whether or not it has spread. Treatment options for breast cancer includes surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy and medication therapy.
-Different types of surgical procedures can be performed for breast cancer:
1-Lumpectomy- the removal of a lump (the tumor and some surrounding tissue)
2- Mastectomy-Removal of a breast
a-Radical mastectomy-removal of the breasts lymph nodes and chest muscles
b-Total mastectomy- removal of breast tissue and nipple
c-Modified radical mastectomy- removal of the breast, most of the lymph nodes under the arm and often the lining over the chest muscle.
Breast Cancer Prevention
Primary Prevention:
Reduce risk factors by exercising regularly and eating a healthy, low fat diet with lots of fruit and vegetables. In addition, reduce alcohol intake, avoid smoking and consider the risks of taking hormone replacement therapy for more than 5 years.
Secondary Prevention
-Women should become familiar with the usual look and feel of their breasts. Monthly Breast Self Examinations can be performed in women all ages. Clinical breast exam which is done by you
r
Gynecologists can be done every 3 years starting from 20 years of age to 29 years of age, and annually for ages 40 and over. As well as mammograms for all women 40 years and older.
Nursing Care
Assessment:
Obtain health history and do a physical examination
Nursing Diagnosis:
Acute pain related to surgery, Fear related to diagnosis of cancer, Disturbed body image related to loss of a breast or part of a breast, Impaired physical mobility related to pain, Fluid volume excess related to lymphedema.
Planning:
Actively participate in management, adhere to therapeutic plan, manage side effects of radiation therapy and prevent complications.
Implement/Interventions:
Assist the client and family to explore options

(Radiation and Rehab), offer support regarding whatever decision client and family make.
For Pre-Op:
Make sure the Informed consent is signed by the patient and that all pre-op labs are in. Answer any questions that patient may have.
For Post-Op:
Monitor ABC (Airway, Breathing and Circulation), Place the patient in a Semi-fowler position with arm on the affected side elevated on pillow to promote lymph drainage and reduce swelling. Encourage early arm exercises to prevent shoulder stiffness (like moving fingers, combing hair, climbing fingers up a wall), Administer analgesics for pain to promote arm exercises, Monitor Intake and Output and administer IV fluids, Change dressings, and monitor hemovac drain (amount, color and consistency). Provide
a
balanced diet to promote wound healing.
What is Cervical Cancer?
Cervical Cancer is a type of cancer that occurs in the cells of the cervix, which is the lower part of the uterus that connects to the vagina.
There are two different types of cervical cancer:
Squamous Cell Carcinoma-these begin in thin, flat cells that line the bottom of the cervix (squamous cells). It accounts for the majority of cervical cancer.
Adenocarcinoma-Occur in the glandular cells
that line the cervical canal. Accounts for a
small portion of cervical cancer.
What causes Cervical Cancer?
Cervical cancer may be caused by a strain of a sexually transmitted disease called Human Papillomavirus (HPV). When exposed to HPV, a woman's immune system typically prevents the virus from doing harm. However, in some women, the virus survives for years, causing some cells on the surface of the cervix to become cancer cells.
Who is at risk???
-Injury to the cervix
-Smokers have a higher risk
-Many sexual partners
-Early sexual activity (before the
age of 18)
-Weak Immune System
Signs and Symptoms
Early cervical cancers usually don't cause any symptoms. When the cancer grows larger, woman may notice abnormal vaginal bleeding like:
-Bleeding that occurs between regular menstrual periods.
-Bleeding after sexual intercourse, douching or a pelvic exam.
-Menstrual periods that last longer and are heavier than before.
-Bleeding after going through menopause
Woman may also have:
-Increased vaginal discharge
-Pelvic pain and pain during sex
Diagnostic Tests
To screen for cervical cancer, doctor do a Pap Smear. The doctor brushes cells from the cervix and sends it to a lab. This test can detect abnormal cells in the cervix.
To further diagnose, after having a positive result for abnormal cells, doctors may obtain a biopsy of the area.
Upon examination, the doctor may choose to get a deeper sample and do a cone biopsy which consists of taking a cone shape sample of the cervix.
After this, then staging occurs ( 4 different types)
Stage 1:Cancer confined to the cervix
Stage 2:Cancer in the cervix and uterus only
Stage 3: Cancer moved beyond the cervix and uterus to the pelvic wall or lower portion of the vagina
Stage 4:Cancer has spread to neraby organs like the bladder or rectum.
Treatments
Treatment depends on several factors like the stage of cancer,
Treatment Options include surgery, radiation and chemotherapy.
Surgery: To remove the uterus (hysterectomy) is used to treat early stages of cervical cancer.
Radiation- it uses high powered energy to kill cancer cells. Its effective for early stage of cervical cancer as well. But if the stage of cancer is worse, then a combination of radiation and chemotherapy is used.
Chemotherapy-a drugs that kill cancer cells and are injected through a vein.
Prevention
How do you prevent cervical cancer?
-Use a condom every time you have sex to reduce the risk of contracting HPV
-Avoid smoking
-Have fewer sexual partners
-Get vaccinated against HPV
-Have routine Pap tests
**The vaccine is most effective if given to girls before they become sexually active.
Vaccine is available for girls ages 9-12, and 13-26 if they haven't received it already.
References
-American Cancer Society. (2013, February 26th). Breast Cancer. Retrieved April 10, 2013, from http://www.cancer.org/cancer/breastcancer/detailedguide/breast-cancer-risk-factors. National Cancer Institute. (2012, September 24)

-Breast Cancer Risk in American Women. Retrieved April 10, 2013, from http://www.cancer.gov/cancertopics/factsheet/detection/probability-breast-cancer.

-Cervical cancer treatment. (2012, September 18). Retrieved from http://www.cancer.gov/cancertopics/pdq/treatment/cervical/Patient/Page 4

-Susan G. Komen (2013, January 14). Does Preganancy affect breast cancer risk and survival? Retrieved April 10, 2013, from http://www.komen.org/content.aspx?id=19327354077
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