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COST TU0904 @ Naples, June 2013

Presented at the Training School for Young Researchers as part of the COST Action TU0904 – Integrated Fire Engineering and Response – Key Issues for the Future of Fire Engineering II.

Cristian Maluk

on 16 September 2014

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Transcript of COST TU0904 @ Naples, June 2013

Size of the test specimen
Identical cross section as the full size element
500 mm in length

Mechanical loading
Replicate mechanical conditions near the anchorage zone

Thermal loading
Replicate the thermal conditions of the furnace test using radiant panels
What now?
Understand and control the mode by which concrete “heats up”

Replicate thermal loading imposed by the furnace test

High precision and high repeatability

Low economic and temporal cost

Statistical assessment
Rational Study of
Heat-induced Concrete Spalling
Past Research
Inverse Heat Transfer Model
The Concept
Experimental Validation of the Inverse Heat Transfer Model
Furnace Tests
How a napkin doodle became a
testing methodology
Behaviour in fire of high-performance CFRP (carbon fibre reinforced polymer) prestressed concrete structural elements

High strength self-compacting concrete (silica fume, fly ash)

CFRP tendons (non-corrosive, high strength)

Slender structural elements (45mm thick)

High prestress conditions (12 MPa)

2 kg/m3 of PP fibres
COST Action TU0904 - Integrated Fire Engineering and Response
Naples, 6-9 June 2013
Heat-induced concrete spalling
Longitudinal splitting cracks and loss of bond
Heat-induced concrete spalling

Polypropylene (PP) fibres

PP fibre type (cross section, diameter) and dosage

With and without compressive stress

11 concrete mixtures

30 days
Potential to benefit the whole building construction industry...

Develop products at a fraction of the economic and temporal cost

Design for “real” fire (or fires!!)

Move away from a pass-fail testing environment

“Understand” materials’ and systems’ behaviour in fire
H-TRIS is a tool…

Studies with statistical confidence

Realistic and/or proper boundary thermal conditions

High repeatability

Low economical and temporal cost
How a napkin doodle became a testing methodology
Luke Bisby, Giovanni Terrasi,
Michal Krajcovic, José Luis Torero,
Guillermo Rein, etc.

Technical and Research Staff

PhD and MEng students


Cristián Maluk Zedán
The University of Edinburgh
Factors related to the occurrence of
Heat-Induced Concrete Spalling
Concrete strength (compressive, tensile)
In-service mechanical stress condition
Moisture content
Type of aggregate
Type of cement
Casting technique (vibrated concrete, SCC, spun concrete)
PP-fibre inclusion
Admixtures inclusion (fly ash, silica fume, etc.)
Heating rate
Internal reinforcement (type, ratio, tie configuration)
Structural form (shape, size, thickness, span, etc.)
...what's next

Further experimental validation - replicate thermal loading of the furnace test to a range of materials

Time-history HF from fire models ("real" fires)

Higher exposed surface & max higher incident HF

No Spalling!!
Incident HF
What's going on inside the furnace?
Absorbed HF
Simply supported
Four-point bending (decompression at the tension fibre in the central region)
Rectangular cross-section (200x45 m2)
Get the radiant panels as close as possible, as hot as possible
60 min
16.36 kJ/m2
7.9 min
10.6 min
16.3 min
1.61 kJ/m2
2.22 kJ/m2
3.64 kJ/m2
Plate Thermometer ('90s)


"Adiabatic Temperature"

Gas, walls, burners, are all at one single temperature!!
“We want to get it
as nearly right as possible
before it is finally adopted, because, after it is adopted by these various associations, it will be
pretty hard to change it
Chairman of the NFPA Committee
on Fire-Resistive Construction
Ira Woolson, 1917
Radiant panels
Loading rig
Linear motion system
thermal energy!!!
Very complex
Tibor Harmathy
Philip Thomas
Margaret Law
Kunio Kawagoe
BRE Centre for Fire Safety Engineering
BRE Centre for Fire Safety Engineering
Inverse Model
Full transcript