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What are Nucleic Acids?

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sidney johnson

on 17 September 2013

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Transcript of What are Nucleic Acids?

Nucleic Acids
What are Nucleic Acids?
Nucleic Acid
(nu-kla'-ik)
A polymer consisting of many nucleotide monomers
"blueprints" for protein synthesis and cellular activity
they are categorized as polypeptides
TWO TYPES OF NUCLEIC ACIDS
DNA
(deoxyribonucleic acid)
How do they function?
Nitrogenous Bases
cytosine
thymine
guanine
adenine
Pyramidines
Purines
(ribonucleic acid)
store and transmit hereditary information
translation
transcription
Genes
unit of inheritance; programs amino acid sequence; consists of DNA
the process of creating a RNA copy of a sequence of DNA
production of a specific polypeptide that will later form a protein.
mRNA
"messenger RNA".
replication
DNA is replicated before the process of cell division
replication
The Double Helix
Double Helix
Antiparallel lines of polynucleotides
-two sugar-phosphate backbones are antiparallel on the outside of the helix
-nitrogenous bases are on the inside of the helix
-two polynucleotides (strands) are held together by hydrogen bonds between paired bases
-van der Waals interactions hold the bases together
-adenine (A) always goes with thymine (T), guanine (G) goes with cytosine (C)
-the two strands are complementary
-linear sequences of nucleotides in DNA determine amino acid sequences of proteins
RNA
-RNA molecules of cells are made of a single polynucleotide chain
mRNA- (messenger RNA): conveys genetic instructions for building proteins from the nucleus to the cytoplasm.

Nucleotides: The Building Blocks of RNA &DNA
Structure:
made up of a nitrogenous base, 5-carbon sugar (Pentosugar) and phosphate group
Difference Between DNA and RNA: The 5- carbon sugar in DNA is a deoxyribo sugar while the
5-carbon sugar in RNA is a Ribo Sugar
The Phosphate Group is the energy source
The nitrogenous base is different in each nucleotide
DNA Nitrogen Bases: Adenine, Cytosine,Thymine, Guanine.
RNA:
Uracil,
Adenine, Cytosine, Guanine
Bonding:
DNA is formed by hydrogen bonds in between the nitrogenous bases
RNA is formed by a dehydration reaction which then forms a covalent bond between two
nucleotides
RNA
RNA
Structure of Nucleotides
Nitrogenous Bases
Full transcript