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Urbanization Project: America's Metropolis'
Transcript of Urbanization Project: America's Metropolis'
What is Urbanization?
Urbanization is the growth of cities as they become the target of building more jobs and moving more people in.
By Grace Lim U.S. History Honors Pd.4
The Causes & Consequences
New factories were built in the city, people who needed jobs moved from the country to the city.
Moving to the city enabled people to live closer & just walk to work.
As income grew, people, many of the middle class, needed safe places to store their money, the government built banks in the city also called, National Banks.
Laws passed by the government didn't fully prevent immigrants from coming to America.
People from other countries came to America for jobs & a better life.
More people working led to rapid development through less wages & less time
2. Fiscal Policies
The Supreme Court fired up competition between industries like railroads, which led to development.
Due to the changes, the demand for labor on farms & other jobs in rural areas dropped.
More laws & penalties were formed due to the increasing amount of people & problems, like child labor in factories
2. Health Problems
Due to so many people, especially the poor, living in cramped spaces, along with the polluted streets, & dirty working conditions, health problems formed.
The health problems led to the development of sanitation. The germ theory, which was the study of how the diseases spread contributed to the development.
Development encouraged governments to start using the piling money into giving poor wages, poor services, & higher taxes.
Social programs received big investments to build better sewage systems and housing.
Scientists analyzed that the diseases didn't come not only from people but also from uncooked foods through the germ theory.
People were instructed to practice healthy habits to ensure good health, the majority started washing hands and made sure to fully cook meals.
3. Class Differences
As more jobs formed, the more differences formed in who made more money.
People lived in neighborhoods of the same class.
As more immigrants started working, the wages for everyone lowered since skilled workers were not needed as much in factories.
The decreasing wages brought discontent among workers. Secret organizations like the Knights of Labor rose to fix the unfair labor politics.
The Knights of Labor used boycotts formed by laborers to support striking workers.
They promoted anti-violence & blood when going against the low wages.
The Knights also enabled workers to still get paid by matching them into available jobs.
Transportation helped industries & factories sell goods faster which helped grow business through more money coming in.
Transportation consisted of railways, canals, & even streetcars.
The Cities of the 19th Century & Today
1st Stop: Chicago
Late 19th &
In 1990, the population had reached about 2,783,726.
Immigrant groups found in Chicago were of Germans, the Irish, Scandinavians, Southern & Eastern Europeans, African Americans, Latinos & Asians.
Chicago's first electrical streetcar or "trolley" was built in 1890. It was known as the "modern" mass transit.
Huge railroad terminals were constructed like palaces, and built near the businesses of the intercity.
The Central Depot (1856)
Chicago's main industries were based on construction, meatpacking, garment making, machinery manufacture & steel making.
Thought many Chicagoans worked in small stores & workshops, in 1920, more than 70% of wage earners worked for big corporations.
Chicago started with "The Galena & Chicago Union Railroad" (1850) but soon became to be known as the hub of the Midwest after the opening of the Union Station (1881).
Chicago's meat industry became the most important industry for development. The city was became,"Porkopolis" by 1862 & the significant food supply during the Civil War (1861-65).
Chicago was one of the world's leading industries in steel production. Steel was used to develop transportation & technology.
Trades in livestock, lumber & grains were able to bring growth through grain elevators, a grain storage facility. The first one was built in 1848.
America's first skyscraper was built in 1884 at LaSalle & Adams St., Chicago. It was a 10-story, steel-frame Home Insurance Building.
Increase in technology led to more better buildings, better machines, etc.
Taller buildings were built after the introduction of elevators, cast-iron supports, & steel girders. The tall buildings increased land values.
Streets were littered with electric streetcars or "trolleys" & railroads due to the "electric traction" of the 1890s, expanding the cities & linking it with the suburbs, enabling more people to come.
Chicago soon had cable cars in 1882, deriving from San Francisco. The city soon had the largest cable system in America.
The Sanitary & Ship canal reversed sewage waters that brought illnesses towards the Mississippi in 1900.
In the later 19th century, the age of electricity brought street lights & telephones strung by overhead wires. This enabled longer labor hours, getting more work done & contributed to development of transportation.
In the 1890s, the bicycle boom reached Chicago. Bicycles were nicknamed, "boneshakers" & was stated as one of the most viable means of transportation. It got you to work faster than walking & a cheap individual-based transportation. Bicycle routes were constructed, which also brought paved roads to the countryside. Chicago became the "bicycle-building capital of America" since almost 2/3's of the nation's bikes were made there.
The Homicide Statute (1871), generally the punishment of murder, was established when the amount of murder tripled in Chicago. In the years 1870-1930, the city had reached a record of 11,000 homicides due to so much change.
Due to the many murders caused by guns, Chicago passed the Chicago Concealed Weapons Law (1881) which states that to carry a gun, the person must have a license granted by the mayor himself. The license costed $2 & stated the name, age, occupation & residence of the person. But it wasn't permanent & expired in a certain amount of days.
The Illinois Child Labor Act of 1903 was formed due to the poor rules in protecting children. The act stated that no child under 14 years old could work, all children had to meet the schooling requirement, inspectors stopped by working places as checkup, & children all had to have an employment ticket.
In 1919, after a notorious payroll robbery, a nonpartisan, anticrime organization, The Chicago Crime Commission was founded by businessmen. Not only did it enforce crime laws, they also monitored police, courts & corrections institutions to make sure there was no laxity or corruption.
One of the most significant jobs the Chicago Crime Commission (CCC) has done was release the "public enemies" list, Al Capone topped the most wanted. Al Capone was behind the infamous St. Valentine's Day Massacre when 7 high-ranking members of a rival gang were shot dead. The organization was involved in the famous prosecution of Al Capone in 1931.
As political & economic changes like population & wealth increased, so did crime.
Women were unfairly punished. "Dorcas Mary Snell, 45, was sentenced to five years of imprisonment with hard labour in 1883 for the theft of a single piece of bacon. She was paroled two years later."
Mary Richards was jailed for five years in 1880 for stealing 130 oysters valued at eight shillings.
Today (2013), Chicago has been estimated to have about 2.715 million people, being known until today as the 3rd largest city in America.
In Chicago, there has been a growth of sub-Saharan African (Nigerians, Ghanians), Mexican, & Indian Groups.
People get around through airplanes, limos, bus vans, cars, SUVs, taxis (water & land), trains, subways, trolleys, buses, & the Amtrak.
The Amtrak, organized by the National Railroad Passenger Corporation, is a publicly funded, intercity passenger train service. It was first built in 1971 but wasn't really recognized until the 2000s, expanding into & serving 43 states.
One of the most popular transportation services in the summer is the Shoreline Water Taxi. It runs on the Chicago River & Lake Michigan. Passengers are dropped off the more significant landmarks of Chicago & official buildings like the Willis Sears Tower.
The Chicago O'Hare International Airport is Chicago's major airport & was voted "The Best Airport in North America" for more than 10 years on Business Traveler Magazine & Global Traveler Magazine. The airport first opened in 1955, but today's has been developed by the O'Hare Modernization Program in 2005.
Today, Chicago's mayor, Mayor Rahm Emanuel, is working on the city's telecommunication network, aiming for Chicago to be the most connected city in the world. Some recent developments include the expansion of fiber optic cables which would improve high-speed Internet access & free wireless in more parks & other places.
President Barack Obama has pressed Congress with an energy proposal to wean cars & trucks from fossil fuels to clean energy & create clean energy jobs.
Some industries like business have jobs based on accounting, advertising, legal, management, & security services, design, research & development.
Information & technology industries provide jobs in Internet publishing & broadcasting, telecommunications, data, technical & scientific research/development services.
Other major industries include, manufacturing, biotech, health, tourism, transportation & distribution.
Cayee's Law was recently formed in Illinois following Florida's Casey Anthony Case. The law states that a parent or guardian of a missing, endangered or murdered child must report it in time or else they would be charged with a Class 3 Felony.
The recent Inline Speed Skating Law states that all inline skaters cannot skate near any traffic of vehicles & must skate at a speed of 45 mph or less from sunrise to sunset.
Recent tax policies in Chicago have created fewer high-wage jobs, revenue stream stresses on households, businesses, & the government itself.
The mean hourly wage in Chicago today is about $23.91.
The building permits average of 2012 was $210,800.
Guns are outlawed in Chicago due to the high amount of shootings.
The population of Chicago is made up of Whites, African Americans, Americans, Indian & Alaska Natives, Asians, Native Hawaiians, & Hispanics/Latinos.
The Late 19th
Some immigrant groups that came over to NYC were of the Italian, Russian, Hebrew, German, Irish, Austrian, Hungarian, French, Chinese, English, Dutch, Swiss, Polish, Bohemian, Canadian, Scandinavian & Scotch.
Many immigrants in NYC arrived at the Ellis Island of New Jersey, one of the most famous immigration landmarks of America.
The immigrants lived in poorly conditioned neighborhoods & were in big discomfort. In 1889, Jane Addams & Ellen Gates Starr established the 1st Settlement House called the Hull House.
The Hull House provided classes for labor, education & work training for young women, day care for children, & space for social gatherings.
In 1902, similar to the Hull House in Chicago, the Greenwich House was built in order to improve the lives of immigrants. The House later established music & other arts schools, counseling & other education centers.
In 1904, NYC started operating its first official subway system, the Interborough Rapid Transit Company, had 28 stations from City Hall to 145th Street and Broadway but later expanded to other cities.
The Italians contributed their hard labor of making the subway tunnels & paving walls with mosaics, their area of expertise.
In 1832, The New York & Harlem Railroad was built, leading to omnibuses & horse-drawn cars on it's railways by 1855.
In 1956-60, motor buses replaced public electric trolley cars & buses.
NYC's first elevated railway service started in 1870. Elevated train service expanded the next decade.
In NYC, police corruption was a huge a problem at the time. The Knapp Commission (1970s), was created inspired by Frank Serpico whom exposed the many police corruptions among his colleagues & testified against them. He recieved the medal of Honor & Bravery after his death.
Corruption led to the job of police of commissioners, the first was President Theodore Roosevelt. Commissioners led police officers to enforce the law, forming the NYPD in 1845.
Trades included food processing, meat packing, leather goods, metal products, & many other manufacturers.
Industries included manufacturing iron, steel, automobile parts, flour, animal feed, finance, insurance, & real estate.
Famous industries like the Rockefeller Standard Oil (1870) & Carnegie Steel were established during this time period.
Some jobs among immigrant laborers were working in silk mills, for girls, & working in coal mines, for boys.
NYC, The "Big Apple": Today
2012 - 8,336,697
2013 - about 8.337 million people
Some common occupations include agricultural managers, pest control, motor vehicle operators, retail salers, & construction laborers.
New York has been national core of industry in financial dealings, services, media, entertainment, telecommunications, the arts, manufacturing & trades.
The top three immigrant groups today in NYC are Latinos, Asians, & Europeans.
NYC public transportation consists of subways, buses, taxis, & ferry.
In NYC, it's smoking indoors is illegal.
There a very strict gun laws, NYC doesn't accept licenses or permits from other states.
NYC has recently formed the anti-marijuana possession law.
“Urbanization in America bloomed from some of the most well-known cities of today. It brought the pros & cons that are still repeated today. The cycle of growth & decline are embedded into America. But it still contributed to us the headstart of even more fascinating gifts of technology & development onto civilization.”
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Today, half of NYC's population in made of whites. The other half is mainly African American, Asians, & Hispanic/Latino.
The city is also the center of advertising, fashion, publishing, & radio broadcasting in the U.S.