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The Vet Profession Map

Standing Committee on Veterinary Education (SCoVE) IVSA aims to promote awareness to Veterinary students on the alternative careers available to them after graduation. The Vet Profession Map is a project is under continual development.


on 7 January 2018

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Transcript of The Vet Profession Map

The Vet Profession Map
Exploring Veterinary Career Paths
Public Health, Policy, Government
Research & Academia
Mixed GP- Owner, Holistic
Small Animal
Farm animal
Lab Animal

Small Animal
Emergency and Critical Care Surgical Specialist
Vet Conservation Medicine
Practitioners that specialize in health management of dogs, cats, birds, exotics, and other companion animals.
Routine interactions with both patients and their owners by appointment in clinics.
Can work in hospitals/charity clinics. Hours are less variable due to high staff workforce.
Qualifications/experience required:
Doctor of Veterinary Medicine (D.V.M. or V.M.D.) required from an accredited school.
Relevance & Importance:
Diagnose diseases and other health problems in pets
provide health care for them
communicate with pet owners on improving standard of care
advise on behavioral training, breeding or dietary requirements.
A specialist in emergency and critical care is a specially trained veterinarian who is dedicated to treating life-threatening conditions. They perform emergency surgeries.
They will need prompt emergency care for Animals if they become injured, or suddenly develop an acute, life threatening disease.
close monitoring and life support measures in the intensive care unit (ICU).
improving the quality of care receives.
Qualifications/Experience required:
graduate of a recognized veterinary school.
conduct an internship
receive a minimum (or equivalent) of 3 additional years of intense training in emergency, surgery and critical care as a “residency” in emergency and critical care
Relevance & Importance:
Any pet that is seriously ill might benefit from this type of care.
Animals that have sustained trauma or bite wounds are an obvious example, but a number of other problems are commonly treated.
Anesthesiologists play an important role in the provision of safe and optimal anesthesia, and contribute their expertise and experience to patient monitoring and support, pain management, local analgesia, fluid therapy, and postoperative care.
Relevance & Importance:
The veterinary specialist in anesthesia provides exceptional anesthetic care before, during and after the procedure and promotes patient safety, consumer protection, professionalism and excellence in anesthesia care.
The Applicants must first be a graduate of a recognized veterinary school (a DVM degree is expected), then receive additional years of intense training in Anesthesia.
At the beginning of surgery to start the process of anesthesia and developing a management plan that is specific for an individual patient, and paying attention to a patient’s physiologic functions during anesthesia, strive to maintain patients as normal as possible during their anesthetic procedures and after they have recovered, the presence of them is required.
Equine veterinarians are licensed animal health professionals who are qualified to diagnose and treat horses involved in various activities, from competition to production.
Bachelor's degree preferred; Doctor of Veterinary Medicine (D.V.M. or V.M.D.)
internships and residencies may be required for some specializations
work a five to six day week with additional “on call” emergency responsibilities
Work may occur outdoors in varying temperatures and weather conditions
Following proper safety precautions to minimize the risk of injury while working with their patients.
Relevance & Importance:
Increase at a healthy rate for the foreseeable future.
Demand for equine specialists should continue to grow.
An exotic animal veterinarian is a veterinarian who has a special interest in the medical treatment of exotic animals. These veterinarians may obtain additional training and certification in areas related to exotic animal medicine.
Farm Veterinarians are practitioners that specialize in health management of livestock species such as cattle, horses, sheep, goats, and pigs.
Requires long hours of work and travelling in between farms.
Highly physical and a great deal of caution and alertness is required.

Qualifications/experience required:
Bachelor's degree preferred;
Doctor of Veterinary Medicine (D.V.M. or V.M.D.) required from an accredited school;
Internships and residencies may be required for specialization.
Relevance & Importance :
Diagnose and treat illnesses that affect a variety of livestock species.
Prevention of zoonotic diseases and increase in production.
Orthopedics is the field of medicine and surgery that treats injury and disease of the musculoskeletal system; that is the bones, joints, ligaments, muscles and tendons of the body.
Working on some orthopedic surgeries per week depends on how many patients need that, and undertake clinical research and also they can work as University staff.
Qualifications/experience required:
They must complete all standard veterinary training, as well as specialized surgical training in orthopedic surgery (internship & residency). Unlike medical doctors, veterinarians must be ready to operate on many species of animals. Most veterinarians specialize in either large or small animals, although some will choose to specialize in a single species, such as horses or cats.
Relevance & Importance:
They research techniques for injury prevention, improved diagnostics, more effective treatments, faster rehabilitation and safer training methods. Their findings may be applied to people, as well as animals. Veterinary orthopedists also study causes of musculoskeletal conditions, and educate owners of horses and companion animals on how to prevent skeletal injuries.
Conservation medicine focuses on health relationships occurring at the interface of humans, animals, and the environment, and seeks to develop and apply health management practices, policies and programs that sustain biodiversity and protect the ecosystems essential to animal and human health.
Approach to address urgent issues facing our planet, including emerging diseases, habitat use conflicts, environmental contamination, ecosystem and climate change, biodiversity loss, and ecosystem function degradation.
Qualifications/experience required:
Bachelor of Veterinary Medicine and Surgery (BVMS) or higher. Recognized Prior Learning of at least one year of experience in the workplace if applying to enter directly into the MVS in Conservation Medicine.
Relevance & Importance:
Conservation medicine shares a similar philosophy to the ‘One Health’ concept, but is also closely allied with the values of conservation biology and the management of endangered populations. It is interdisciplinary, requiring input from veterinary and human medicine, ecology, biology, epidemiology, public health and social and political science.
Wildlife veterinarians are licensed animal health professionals that are trained to treat a variety of species. Wildlife vets treat many species of mammals, birds, and reptiles. Wildlife vets may work either in an office setting or in the field.
It is not unusual for vets to work some nights, weekends, and holidays. Some wildlife veterinarians have schedules that involve “on call” time for treating emergency cases, and it is not uncommon for vets to put in 50 hours of work (or more) per week. Some wildlife veterinarians conduct research or treat patients in the field, so travel may be involved for some practitioners.
Qualifications/experience required:
All wildlife veterinarians graduate with a Doctor of Veterinary Medicine (DVM) degree, which is achieved after completion of a demanding course of study which covers both small and large animal species
Relevance & Importance:
Help for saving endangered species of Animals is the main goal, however, It Wildlife vets help to discover the source of many zoonotic diseases that animals in the wildlife are reservoirs of those diseases.
General Practitioner
General practice veterinarians are practitioners that specialize in health management of both large and small animals.
May work during morning or evening hours.
Must be ready on call for emergencies
Physically demanding, risks bites, scratches, kicks etc.
Qualifications/experience required:
DVM from an accredited institution
State lincence
Importance & Relevance:
Responsible for the welfare and health of animals.
Prevention of zoonotic diseases.

Work may involve animal hospital, small animal, zoos, private clinics.
Long hours spent experimenting and researching.
Poultry Veterinarian
Working outdoors in varying temperatures and weather conditions.
Working a five to six day per week with additional “on call” emergency hours.
Relevance & Importance:
Flock health management procedures, vaccination programs, inspections, meat or egg evaluation
Duties carried out on livestock farms or in government processing facilities.
DVM from from an accredited institution,
At least 2 years of residencyrequired for specialization in this field
Maintenance and improvement of animal (exotic) health and disease prevention.

Community Service (Dog/Cat Stray Clinic)
Aquatic Medicine
Holistic Medicine
Behavioral Medicine
Laboratory Animal Medicine
Veterinarians care for the live specimens used in scientific research. Duties may also include training researchers and veterinarian technicians, breeding lab animals, managing the lab facilities and doing independent research.
Working with variety of animal species.
On call for weekends and holidays on rotational basis.
Long laboratory hours.
Licensed DVM holder
Background of clinical training and research
Also a residency and board certification.

Relevance & Importance:
Ensure good research outcomes.
Develop suitable practice techniques for animals' wellbeing.

Working with communities and private or public agencies. Includes community wide spay/neuter campaigns, vaccinations as well as health consultations for dogs and cats.
Physically and mentally challenging experience.
Hard work, Limited breaks, long hours.
Living and working under varying conditions
Licensed DVM holder
Licensed nurses/technicians
Any other specialty.
Relevance & Importance:
Improve health and welfare of animals in remote and rural communities.
Control local animal population
Help check zoonosis

Veterinarians with additional training in animal behavior, able to modify or correct behavioral problems in animals e.g. anxiety issues.
Long office consulting hours and occasionally clinic or hospital practice.
A licensed veterinarian, DVM
At least 3 years in veterinary behavior in a residency/ individually mentored program.
Board certification
Relevance & Importance:
Behavioral problems are complex and can have many causes; and it takes a concerted effort under the guidance of a trained professional to bring about change.
Shelter Medicine & Charity
Clinical Pathology
Diagnostic Imaging
Specialisms in Private/University Referral Hospitals
Research Institute
Veterinary Medical Technologist
Applied Economist
General Academic
Ecology & Environmental Protection
Government State Economy Vets /chief vet officer
Animal Welfare Specialist/Inspetor
Global Veterinary

World Trade Organisation, OiE, Codex Alimentarius
FVE, WSAVA, Charities
Army Vets
Pet & Human Food Companies
Manage and Inspect Food Producing Farms for Cooperate Supermarkets
Cooperate Veterinary Medicine
Veterinary Business
Management Director or Advisor
Veterinary Pharmaceuticals- Sales, Business
Food Supply Medicine
Cooperate Medicine
Public Health, Policy & Government
Food Supply Medicine
Specializes in complementary veterinary therapies working alongside your traditional veterinarian, May include veterinary acupuncture, homeopathy and herbal medicine. The philosophy of a holistic veterinarian emphasizes empathy and minimal invasiveness.
Working in practice or hospital settings for appointments or referral cases.
Consultations often involves prolonged contact hours with clients.
Home visits to clients.
Qualifications/experience required:
DVM and a license from an accredited institution
Board certified after years of experience/internship in internal medicine OR certificate/diploma in holistic medicine
When treatment options are limited and frustrating, focusing on alleviating symptoms through the use of narcotics and other means.
Heal animals using a whole body approach.
Alternative therapy stems from the horse and dog racing industry specialized animal health practices.
Working in laboratories, conducting clinical research on human and animal health problems. May perform tests on animals to identify the effects of drug therapies or they may test new surgical techniques on cadeavours or research laboratory animals.
Must have a vast amount of knowledge on specialist research field.
Flexible hours in the laboratories, working with microbial agents and all sorts of laboratory animals.
Report writing, finding research grants and presenting findings in meetings, conferences and international research conferences.
Education beyond DVM. Usually MVSc/PhD in specific areas.
Relevance & Importance:
Develop better ways needed to prevent, diagnose and treat animal and human health problems.
You can go into Clinical research and become a scholar in feline or canine medicine whilst being a clinician!
An academic works in research institutions often associated with universities, they lead and conduct research programs and projects funded by universities or external organizations. Often they teach alongside their research and are expected to find funds for their own research projects.
Most of the time spent in laboratories, in clinics or collecting surveys and data worldwide.
Attend meetings on research elsewhere and conferences related to their subject.
Flexible hours
Leading a research project with research assistants and supportng masters and PhD students.
A masters or PhD required after DVM
Research experience required

Relevance & Importance:
New research means better medicine, better living and improved veterinary teaching!
Veterinary Technologists customize medical technologies to improve animal production, health, welfare and medicine.
Veterinary science background, with PhD studies in information or computer sciences.
Relevance & Importance:
To make computer/phone applications for disease report, milk production monitoring, statistical software, translate human physiological parameters to animals.
Aquatic veterinarians are practitioners that specialize in the health management of a wide variety of marine species which can include fish, marine mammals, sea turtles, and other wildlife.
Qualifications/experience required:
Doctor of Veterinary Medicine (DVM) degree from an accredited program
Obtain an aquatic licence and may pursue a board certification in Aquatic Medicine.
Work in fish farm, exotic Aquarium or research in wild aquatic animals is beneficial.
It is common to work five to six days a week with additional “on call” hours being a possibility depending on the specific nature of their practice.
Work may involve working with animals in large tanks/sanctuaries which may be outdoors, exposing the vet to varying temperatures and weather conditions.
Importance/ Relevance:
Veterinarians in the field are prepared to share and build resources for the benefit of the aquatic veterinary community globally. E.g. lead and promote research in breeding, nature, conservation, medicines for aquatics.
To improve, promote and build the profession in and outside veterinary medicine.
To provide more veterinary support to unique species and conserve endargerd species.
Wildlife, Conservation, Shelter medicine
Locum Vet
A locum is a vet who signs up for an locum organisation in your local country and locums for practices who need staff on a temporary basis. They can be general practicioners or specialists.
Qualifications/experience required:
Doctor of Veterinary Medicine (DVM) degree from an accredited program
At least one or two years experience after graduation.
Helpful if well known in local area.
As a locum, you can decide when you would like to work. You can work 0-6 days a week. No holiday restrictions.
Hours are flexible and depends on practice you work at for each locuming.
Work involved doing consulations and a few surgeries.
Often very well paid- double the amount of a normal GP!
Working with different staff and meeting new clients.
Work across the country or internationally, network with different businesses.
Importance & Relevance:
Cover sick/on holiday duty vets at General Practices, hospitals or Referral Centers.
Locums enable businesses to continue working efficiently and can suggest new developments for improving business, customer satisfaction and medicine.
Share experiences on approaches to a successful business and medical techniques.
Animal Welfare Officer in Abattoirs
Farm Manager
The careers explained are not exhaustive and represent alternative opportunties within Veterinary Medicine. IVSA seeks to expand employment options and opportunities to students and graduates.
For further reading and references please use the Careers Group Guide: http://www.rvc.ac.uk/Media/Default/Advice%20Centre/Documents/Alternativecareerhandout.pdf
CP is a veterinary medical doctor who provides preventive care and health education to patients. They can see their patients and deal with their associated clinical paperwork. However, a partner has additional responsibilities, such as staffing, performance management, premises, accounts and driving business prosperity.
Qualifications/experience required:
Experienced administrator or manager.
Experience in a health or social care setting, experience and qualifications in accounts, experience of personnel work or staff management in other industries.
You may find it helpful to take a business management qualification as a Masters or MBA. This could be a general management course, or one specific to practice management.
A greater proportion of admin and computer work, organizaing internal and external meetings
Updating financial accounts, such as managing the practice's staff and budgets, developing its business strategy and making sure that everything runs smoothly.
Working around 37 hours per week is expected. Flexible hours.
Importance/ Relevance:
Highly employable
Potentially part own the practice/manage high class hospitals/ manage cooperate Veterinary chains e.g. PDSA
Promote business drive, maintain client and staff satisifaction
Veterinary ophthalmologists are specialists with advanced knowledge of ocular health and specialized surgical procedures that are performed on the eye.
Qualifications/experience required:
Doctor of Veterinary Medicine (DVM) degree from an accredited program
1 year internship
3 year residency in the field, either at a veterinary teaching hospital or at a clinic under the supervision of a board certified ophthalmology diplomate.
Diploma/certificate/Masters/PhD is often acquired.
While most veterinary ophthalmologists choose to work in private practice, some are involved in academia.
Involved in clinical research ad writing scientific papers on specialist field.
Flexible hours
Be an adviser for many animal associations and referrals. Attending international conferences.
Importance & Relevance:
Diagnose and treat conditions of the eye including cataracts, corneal ulcers, conjunctivitis, uveitis, and glaucoma. They also provide treatment for traumatic eye injuries.
Developing up to date procedures and surgical/diagnostic equipment.
Sharing and exchanging ideas and information between human and animal health workers.
A Veterinary neurosurgeon specializes in the diagnosis and medical or surgical treatment of disorders of the central and peripheral nervous system. This includes congenital anomalies, trauma, tumors, vascular disorders, infections of the brain or spine, stroke, or degenerative diseases of the spine. The education and training to become a neurosurgeon is rigorous and extensive.
Qualifications/experience required:
Doctor of Veterinary Medicine (DVM) degree from an accredited program
1 year internship- general/neurology specific
3 year residency in the field, either at a veterinary teaching hospital or at a clinic under the supervision of a board certified neurology diplomate.
Diploma/certificate/Masters/PhD is often acquired.
Extensive training in the diagnosis of all neurological diseases, they are often called upon by emergency room vets, internal medicine specialists, family practitioners and osteopaths for consultations.
Provide comprehensive inpatient care for patients with complex neurological disorders and doing some surgeries during a week depends on how many patients need it.
Often not many neurologists in a practice so high caseload per specialist.
Flexible hours
Importance & Relevance:
Neurosurgery today is one of the most technologically involved surgical specialties with many contributions from computer-based neuronavigational technology, spinal biomechanics and instrumentation, gene therapy for brain tumor management, and catheter-driven endovascular techniques, as well as continued advances in neuroradiological technology.
No surgical specialty offers as broad a spectrum of pathological disorders and options for management as neurosurgery does today.
As our understanding of neurology develops there is more and more research on this. It is a new field in veterinary medicine and neurologists will be at the forefront of this. Exchange of knowledge between vets an medics is key.
Involved in evaluating the economics of disease control, providing evidence for support of a Public Health Protocol for the Government.
Decent office work
Attending international conferences, e.g. FAO, WHO
Veterinary science backgrounds with (postgraduate) studies of animal health economics)
Relevance & Importance:
To support investment on disease control and to what level the disease should be controlled. To make prioritizations on disease control plans and how to eradicate endemic or outbreaks of diseases.
A trained veterinarian involved in statistical analysis and collecting data on nutrition, epidemiology and disease control etc. Involved in Animal Health Economics.
Veterinary theriogenologists are specialists with advanced knowledge of reproductive medicine and surgery.
Private/Public practice, may teach in vet school and conduct and publish researches.
Provide consultations on request, as well as referrals.
DVM + License
Board certification/Residency in field

Relevance & Importance:
Good breeding programs, pregnancy checks, pre-surgical exams and diagnostic tests,
Performing surgical procedures to correct reproductive issues,
Compiling case reports, and overseeing veterinary technicians or other support staff.
Veterinary radiologists are veterinarians with advanced training in the interpretation of diagnostic images. Their primary duty is to evaluate medical diagnostic images.
Consultations on referred cases
Writing up detailed case reports, Teleradiology
DVM holder, licensed
Internship/Residency in field
Board certification
As an veterinary physiotherapist, you would assess and treat animals with injuries or mobility problems.
Work could be full/part-time, and your hours would be flexible, depending on the needs of clients.
Work in stable yards, the client's home or in surgeries and hospitals.
Degree in human physiotherapy, then a PG in veterinary physiotherapy.
Board certification, PhD for research.
Relevance & Importance:
Treatments for diagnosed conditions or injuries on animals referred by a veterinary surgeon.
Develop new management protocols to improve healing of fractures or other musculoskeletal disorders.
Examine animal bodily fluids, such as urine or blood, to diagnose diseases. Routine duties may include biopsies or necropsies, drawing blood, collecting urine samples, preparing blood or urine specimens for evaluation.
May have to work some evening, weekend, or holiday hours, depending on the situation.
Occupational hazards, injuries may be involved.
Laboratory team work
DVM, Multi-year residency/PhD in Pathology.
Relevance & Importance:
Monitor treatment protocols or disease progression & to check organs that cant be checked on a general physical examination.
The oncologist has the advanced training, diagnostic equipment, up to date chemotherapy and immuno-therapy protocols, and experience to treat a variety of cancers in companion animals.
Close relationship with surgery, internal medicine, and diagnostic imaging services.
DVM with license, with years of experience in residency or internship for Board certification.
Relevance & Importance:
Provide compassionate care and understanding by presenting as many options as possible so that pet owners can choose the best cancer therapy for their animals.
The work of a veterinary cardiologist involves the diagnosis and treatment of heart and large blood vessel disease. In addition, veterinary cardiologists also can work with diseases of the lungs and chest. Veterinary cardiologists have extensive training beyond veterinary school which includes extensive training in diagnostic imaging techniques and medical treatments for heart and vascular diseases.
Qualifications/Experience required:
DVM degree
General rotational internship
3 year Residency programme
Further training in specialism
PhD/masters is useful but not necessary
Diagnosing and treating complicated heart diseases medically and surgically.
Hours depend on case load per week. It is usual to have a small case load even in specialist referral centres.
Attending many specialist conferences- local and internationally.
Further reading is required during quiet days.
Importance & Relevance:
Examine patients with heart health issues, make diagnosis and determine if they are a candidate for surgery; determine what surgical procedures to employ on patients; perform surgical/medical procedures to correct heart problems caused by illness, disease or injury and helping for prevention of heart disease in Animals.
Assisting or leading research in developments of new diagnostics, preventative meaures and treatments against heart disease.

Veterinary pharmaceutical sales representatives are responsible for marketing animal health products to veterinarians and animal hospitals. Sales representatives must constantly educate themselves about the market and their product. It is easy to work your way up the company and further market the product internationally or get involve in the clinical research.
Qualifications/experience required:
A working knowledge of sales, marketing, anatomy, physiology, biology, pharmacology, chemistry, and public speaking is beneficial. Veterinary office experience is a big plus.
A Bsc in Animal Science, DVM or Veterinary Technician/Nurse helpful.
May involve inside or field sales.
Inside sales positions do not involve much (if any) travel; representatives conduct business via the telephone.
Field sales positions require frequent travel throughout a designated territory, as representatives call on veterinarians in person at their place of business to sell products or provide training related to products.
All sales representatives work under the supervision of a sales manager.
Standard working hours on monday- friday.
Importance & Relevance:
Strong interpersonal skills
Education on drug use is essential so problems like abuse or withdrawal times and resistances are avoided.
Educate clients and the world on the most up to date medical treatments to improve health and welfare of animal
A lot of pharmaceuticals fund educational projects e.g. on promoting awareness on antibiotic resistance or charity work.
Veterinarians, who apply qualities to pets and pet food or Humans food, They also conduct their business with quality control and safety, traceability and quality standards.
Research for updating the quality of food products and Study on nutritional factors, which is important for Human/pet body
Ensure that the food product has enough nutrients.
Sampling of products in any stages of production to control the minimum standards
Ensuring that the company has a healthy product while they are working on food production factory or in experimental labs.
Qualifications/experience required:
Bachelor or MSc degree/PG Diploma in food and hygiene
additional training in Animals/Humans Nutrition and quality control is enough
Relevance & importance :
Guidance to help managers and staff prevent the spread of infection by advising which illnesses
They also can provide healthy products for humans and pets by doing CODEX methods to prevent any diseases
Veterinary pharmacologists are experts in the use of pharmaceutical drugs used to treat diseases in animals.
May work in varied places:
- Animal hospital: work with veterinarian to identify the best medication and drug therapies for animal patients.
- Pharmaceutical companies: Conduct research on the efficacy of new drug treatment for animals
- University as a pharmacology professor
carries a small amount of risk for veterinarians
working with sick and scared animals or handle potentially hazardous materials in a lab.
working at least full-time, though longer hours are common and may include evenings, nights, and weekends.
Qualifications/experience required:
Requires a DVM or a doctorate in pharmacology
a residency in veterinary clinical pharmacology.
State license required; optional board certification in veterinary pharmacology.
Relevance & importance:
They select safe and effective pharmacological agents that exert the appropriate action, with individualized dosing regimen for each patient.
Develop novel new treatments and work with other scientists and researchers in many fields, with the aim of developing a new effective drug treat disease currently facing the Veterinary World.
Veterinary managers' responsibilities are based around the smooth handling and organization of their clients businesses such as veterinary practice, or Veterinary medicine suppliers. They help maintain client satisfaction, staff relations, and profitability.
Good standard office hours
Can involve a lot of traveling to clients businesses.
Many meetings to attend on improving profitability and improving advice to clients.
Attending conferences and networking
Qualifications/experience required:
At least 2 years clinical experience
Masters in Business (company may sponsor this)
Work experience in industry
Relevance & importance:
Day-to-day tasks include optimizing scheduling processes, hiring and training employees, creating budgets and targets.
Auditing the practice for regulatory standards and performance.
Often they work with animal health and human health workers. They share new thoughts and ideas with both clients and are part of the One Health initiative.
Chief spokesperson on animal health and welfare issues. Attracting recruits for government veterinary
roles, spreading knowledge and awareness of the aims, laws, principles and practice of state veterinary medicine and veterinary public health to private sector vets and the general public making sure government veterinarians are skilled, capable and effective as a group. shapes animal health and welfare policy across the country, internationally and throughout Government and influences its delivery. leads the government response to outbreaks of exotic animal diseases. advises on the programmes necessary to control, and, where appropriate, eradicate disease. represents the government in the EU and internationally, negotiating on behalf of the government. Head of Profession for all veterinary surgeons in the government‟s employment.
9-5 job with a lot of traveling within the country and abroad to represent government's policies
promoting greater international alliances on animal welfare and food production.
Involved in disease surveillance and control animal health and welfare veterinary medicines
Your working hours would vary depending on the time of year.
Office work with time spent outside around the farm in all weather conditions.
A bachelor's degree in a field like animal husbandry, animal science or dairy science/ DVM.
Classes in business, accounting and marketing are also useful in this career field. Enhancement of credentials possible after professional experience and/or an exam.
Relevance & Importance:
Good hygiene, proper feed, appropriate husbandry and good management practices are by far the best strategy for farmers to adopt, not just for health related reasons but for economic reasons too.
Veterinarians with specialized training and experience in animal welfare. Inspecting farms, laboratories, abattoirs and animal shelters for good animal welfare. They are employed by either food companies, Government or NGOs. Report issues to local authoroties.
Mostly consultancy, involved in public education and inspections. Mostly office work with lots of policies and regulations to implement and enforce.
International training anc conferences
Career opportunities in areas such food safety and military working dog in veterinary medicine. The military also provides advanced training in specialty areas for those who commit to service.
Commitment to the army is required and means working in army camps and possibly abroad. Minimal holiday and free time available.
Often good income and tuition feed are paid for.
Previous army training would improve application.
Overall excellent health and fitness history. commitment to long hours and evidence of taking initiative and following the strict armed force regime.
Relevance & Importance:
Protect the welfare and health of working dogs, horses and other animals and maintain food safety in the army and abroad for citizens. There is an element of charity work on providing humanitarian support. Further training will allow working with soldiers on defence.
For more information, check out: http://www.goarmy.com/amedd/veterinarian.html
Qualifications/experience required:
Previous experience in the State Veterinary Service
policy roles on international trade, BSE controls, animal welfare and international relations coordination for Governments Food.
Experience in government will stimulate your interest in everything from veterinary research, control of exotic and other high risk diseases
growing role of the vet in delivering safer food and other animal products to consumers and the role of veterinary forensics in animal welfare
Relevance & importance :
Promote and improve animal welfare and health
new policies to allow improvement on livestock production and veterinary medicine.
The unique expertise developed by veterinarians in government informs public health, animal health and welfare and disease surveillance and control.
Veterinarians in this field are natural leaders in finding solutions to many environmental-health problems, including investigations of harmful algal blooms, exposures to pesticides and toxins, responding to human made and natural disasters, and exposures to excessive noise, heat, and cold, and cancer clusters.
Involves assisting in emergency situations such as oil spills by organizing the capture, cleanup, and release of affected wildlife in the area.
Qualifications/experience required:
Board certification in ecology
Training or experience in toxicology
Training or experience in: laboratory animal medicine, preventive medicine, microbiology, wildlife and zoological medicine, aquatic animal medicine and other areas of specialization.
Relevance & Importance::
Assist in protecting the environment by identifying and tracking contaminants from sources like confined animal feeding operations or fish hatcheries
Prevent contaminants from polluting waterways (lakes, rivers, and streams) and ground water aquifers.
A specialty in this field after a DVM requires years of experience leading to a board certification in the Animal Welfare.
Relevance & Importance:
Ensuring good animal welfare has been intuitively recognized as a critical goal of veterinary medical practice since its inception. However, during the past twenty years, animal welfare has expanded exponentially as a distinct discipline of veterinary medicine.
For more information: http://blogs.usda.gov/2012/11/13/why-i-became-an-inspector-in-aphis%E2%80%99-animal-care-program/
State Public Health Services
Work for the state health department, for the government and serve generally work in zoonotic disease control and prevention . May act as livestock inspectors, checking animals for transmissible diseases or carry out inspections in slaughterhouses.
On call and work most of the days.
Work includes inspection rounds, Policy making and implementation,
Travelling coupled with hours of office work compiling and sending data.
A DVM and a licence from an accredited institution
Years of experience, background in epidemiology, biostatistics or managment.
MPH/Doctorate/board certification will earn you an appointment into a State Office.
Relevance & Importance:
To prevent the introduction of foreign diseases through quarantine and inspection of animals and animal products brought into the country.
Protect countries disease status
For more information:
Contribute to active implementation of regional programmes relating to trade boundries, animal
and aquatic diseases, research, settling trade disputes, veterinary biologics and animal welfare including organising meetings
and workshops.
Staff members are international civil servants under the authority of the Director General. They may be assigned to any activity of the Regional Representation. A full time job that may require living in a foreign country. Must be available for frequent missions abroad and international conferences. Must be available if serious outbreaks occur or disuputes regarding trade occur.
Degree in Veterinary Medicine
At least five years’ experience, at the national or international level, in the veterinary services, preferrably as a state veterinary officer.
Good understanding of animal disease prevention and control, including in the context of international trade.
For the collection and maintenance of internationally recognized standards, codes of practice, guidelines and other recommendations relating to foods, food production and food safety.
(FVE) was founded in 1975. Today, we represent 46 national veterinary organizations across 38 European countries and 4 vibrant Sections, each of which represents key groups within our profession: Practitioners (UEVP), Hygienists (UEVH), Veterinary State Officers (EASVO) and Veterinarians in Education, Research and Industry (EVERI).The European Veterinary profession, embodied by FVE, strives to promote animal health, animal welfare and public health across Europe.Together with its members, FVE aims to support veterinarians in delivering their professional responsibilities at the best possible level, recognised and valued by society. Further to their high education and training, and through the application of their specific knowledge of animals and related technical skills, veterinarians contribute - in a unique way - to the prevention and control of health and welfare issues in animals, including wildlife and related human health problems. Veterinarians therefore are experts in the field of animal health, animal welfare and public health.
The World Small Animal Veterinary Association (WSAVA) is an association of associations. Its membership is made up of veterinary organisations from all over the world, which are concerned with companion animals. Currently there are 96 member and affiliate associations, representing over 158,000 individual veterinarians from around the globe.
The Worldwide Veterinary Services is a UK founded charity that provides veterinary services globally on request from other charities. Their work involves emergency response to a disaster, supplies veterinary aid parcels, sends volunteer teams to conduct spay clinics and provide life saving resources to animal waelfare charities and non-profit organizations. WVS has set up the WVS International Training Center promote education & training to local charities, vets and dog catchers.
Check out also...
World Trade Organization
'Promote free trade'- overseeing agreements, forum for negotiations/settling negotiations, propogating national trade policies, ensure coherence and transparency of trade policies, assisting low income countries to adjust to WTO rules and centre of economic research.
-Non-discrimination, reciprocity, enforceable commitments, transparency
-Safety valves- prevent disease transmission between countries
-Minimize trade barriers
-Recognisiton of risk of spread of health issues
-Application of SPS agreement linked to TBT agreement. State countries should base laws on SPS agreement and use standards set by the international standard setting organisations.
WTO recongnises standard setting organisations for animal health and food: OiE, Codex Alimentarius and IPPC
Established in 1924, with 178 members.
Aim: To improve transparency of animal diseases, promote scientific excellence (magazine published every 3 months), international support to developing countries, safety of international trade, food safety and promote animal welfare.

Set an approach to diagnosis, control, eradication, trade conditions similar in all OiE member states WAHID

Animal Health Codes and Manuals:
Set standards for improvement of animal health, welfare and VPH
Standards for safe international trade in animals/products.
Set health measures for early detection, reporting, control and prevention of disease agent transfer via trade. Avoid unsatisfied sanitary barriers to trade.
Set lab methods and requirements for production and control for vaccines and other biological products.
Established in 1963 by FAO/WHO

Aims: Protect the health of consumers and ensure fair practices in international food trade. Set standards on all aspects of food production.
Concerned with food labeling, additives, contaminants in food, veterinary residues and food hygiene.

Requirements for qaulity/food safety be similar in all participant countries in codex=> reduce trade barriers.

Codex Alimentarius
For more information check out: www.cdc.gov/nceh/ehs/docs/jeh/2007/april_2007_mainzer.pdf
Qualification/Experience required:
obtains a DVM at any of the certified Veterinary colleges
specialize in the care of birds from 1 to 4 years. (Board certification).
Meat Inspector

Food Business Operator
Reference: http://work.chron.com/certification-required-veterinary-meat-inspectors-30337.html
Inspects food designed for human consumption, while also supervising food inspection and combined veterinary service activities. It include; Evaluation of packaging, packing and marking requirements; identifying unsanitary conditions in food storage facilities and commissary stores; performing duties in accordance with approved standards of conduct and reporting suspected fraud.

Noisy industrial environment with large moving machinery.
Frequent physical activities such as walking, climbing, standing, and kneeling are required, including climbing and walking on catwalks.
Environmental conditions may include sub-freezing temperatures and frequent summertime temperatures at 80 to 90 degrees with extreme humidity.
D.V.M. /Master's Degree in Preventative Veterinary Medicine, Public Health, Board Certification in this specialty area of veterinary medicine, or a Ph.D. in a related field.
Relevance & Importance:
Forming the first line of defence against the spread of many diseases among animals, and between animals and humans, they help to maintain healthy practices in the food and livestock industries, including sound meat hygiene and animal health.
Check out CDC for more on disease control and prevention of zoonotic disease spread between pets, livestock and humans
Working to prevent adulterated or misbranded meat and meat products from being sold as food and to ensure that meat and meat products are slaughtered and processed under sanitary conditions. These requirements also apply to imported meat products, which must be inspected under equivalent foreign standards.
You would work 37 to 40 hours a week, which may occasionally include evenings or weekends.
spending much of your time traveling between different inspection sites.
Conditions can be very cold in slaughterhouses and storage areas, and very warm in factory processing areas.
Qualification/ experience required:
Bachelor's degree or one year of job-related experience.
One year of experience in food processing, as a veterinary technician or in sanitation practices at a food handling and preparation company

Relevance & importance:

• Inspect the hygiene in slaughterhouses, cutting plants, factories and cold stores
• Check animal welfare conditions
• Inspect live animals, game or poultry for any signs of disease
• Help to carry out post mortems on diseased animals
• Check meat transportation conditions
• Make sure that unfit meat is destroyed properly
• Record the findings from your inspections
• Recommend any improvements that need to be made

Food business operator is responsible to ensure and maintain regular checks of food compliance with requirements of domestic legislation. It is crucial to provide consumers with trustworthy and complete information about the product, including technical regulations and standards requirements which are met by the product.
working every day in food producing factories
ensure that food handlers receive appropriate supervision and instruction/training in food hygiene
enable them to handle food safely.
Bachelor or MSc degree/PG Diploma in food and hygiene
additional training in Animals/Humans Nutrition and quality control.
DVM and board certification in food and hygiene (PHD)

Relevance & importance:
ensuring that the articles of food satisfy the requirements of this Act
ensuring that the rules and regulations made there under at all stages of production, processing, import, distribution and sale within the businesses under his control.

An official Veterinarian (OV) can be a private veterinarian who performs work on behalf of the EU state Member state. They can perform border inspectins for imports and exports of livestock and domestic animals. They will inspect 10% of random imports per day. They can also issue pet passports and certificates for pet and liestock travel. Official Veterinarians can undergo further training and work directly for the government veterinary public health department and they also can undertake inspections and assessing disease risks including Brucella, Anthrax, sheep scab and Tuberculosis etc. They report to the Veterinary regional manager and headquarters. OVs will be working to control disease outbreaks and implement policies and legislations on disease control on endemic diseases and perform measures to prevent and avoid disease entrance from other countries. For instance in an event of a disease outbreak they will produce surveillance and protection zones and be involved in vaccine delivery, antibiotic, disinfecting or mass culling measures.
9-5 job with a lot of traveling within the country.
Promoting greater international alliances on animal welfare and food production.
Disease surveillance and control animal health and welfare veterinary medicines, so when disease outbreaks occur OVs will be in the Vets performing the restrictions and control measures.
Qualifications/experience required:
Previous experience in the State Veterinary Service
Training from each country is required.
Relevance & importance:
The unique expertise developed by veterinarians in government informs public health, animal health and welfare and disease surveillance and control.
OVs are at the forefront and of disease control and are responsible for avoiding disease imports and controlling disease outbreaks.
Coordinates and implements animal welfare operating procedures in slaughterhouses, in order to provide animal welfare benefits. They record actions taken to improve animal welfare and records kept for one year and made available to local authorities. Animal welfare officers will be located in abattoirs with over 1000 livestock slaughtered per year.
You would work 37 to 40 hours a week, which may occasionally include evenings or weekends.
Conditions can be very cold in slaughterhouses and storage areas, and very warm in factory processing areas.
Reference: http://www.awtraining.com/AWT/The_Welfare_Officer.html
Relevance & importance:

The animal welfare officer shall be under the direct authority of the business operator and shall report directly to him or her on matters relating to the welfare of the animals. He or she shall be in a position to require that the slaughterhouse personnel carry out any remedial actions necessary to ensure compliance with the rules laid down in this Regulation.
The responsibilities of the animal welfare officer shall be set out in the standard operating procedures of the slaughterhouse and effectively brought to the attention of the personnel concerned.
Animal welfare officer will be at the forefront of improving welfare and slaughter techniques in Abattoirs.

Qualification/experience required:
• Level 2 Certificate should hold a certificate of competence.
• Level 4 Diploma for Proficiency in Meat Inspection.
• five GCSEs (A-C), including English and science or maths
• Proven experience of working in the meat industry, for example in a slaughterhouse or meat processing plant.

Official Veterinarian
Working in European Agencies related to Public Health:
EFSA (European Food Safety Agency) in Parma, Italy. EFSA’s mission is to assess the risks on food-related issues.
EMA (European Medicines Agency) in London, UK. EMA’s mission is to assess the risks on human and veterinary drugs.
ECDC (European Center for Disease Prevention and Control) in Stockholm, Sweden. ECDC's mission is to identify, assess and communicate current and emerging threats to human health posed by infectious diseases (that can be human infectious diseases as well as animal infectious diseases).
FVO (Food and Veterinary Office) near Dublin, Ireland. FVO’s mission is to control the official inspection services of the Member States and third Countries.
FDA (Food and Drug Administration)

Working in International Institutions related to Public Health:
OIE (World Organisation for Animal Health
FAO (Food and Agricultural Organisation) in Roma, Italy
WHO (World Health Organisation) in Geneva, Switzerland
Head of Department on Food Safety
Head of Department on Animal Health and Animal Welfare
Inspection of Installations Classified for the Protection of the Environment
Official Veterinarian at the Slaughterhouse
Official Veterinarian at a border inspection post for importations (custom services at airports, ports)
Expert witness in civil and penal courts on issues related to Public Health or Animal Welfare
Agricultural adviser in Embassies
National detached expert at the European Commission
Relevance & Importance:
To convert data to useful information, to build and provide evidence for support on research or a protocol or measure.
Data can be used by international organisations especially on data collected about public health and diseases.
Example: statistical analysis on the comparison between the econoical stability of rabies preventative vaccinatio protocol to cost of post-exposure treatment
DVM Veterinary Degree
Phd- epidemiology
Research/Acdemic institute expereince

Analyze data, travel to farms or places, develop Technology
Flexible hours
A lot of computer work and research involed in a office setting.

WWF (World Wide Fund for Nature) involved in protecting endangered wildlife, biodiversity conservation and climate change
Veterinary Pharmacist

Ensure appropriate medication use for veterinary patients
Qualifications/experience required:
There is no educational pathway to a veterinary pharmacy career.
Some US colleges of pharmacy offer a veterinary pharmacy elective. Colleges that do not offer such an elective may allow students to complete the coursework offered at colleges with a veterinary elective. There are a variety of veterinary-specific post-graduate continuing education opportunities. In the US there are several veterinary pharmacy post-graduate residencies programs; in 2016 there are 3 programs offering a total of 4 residency slots. Willingness to learn veterinary therapy on the job is essential.
9-5 Job
Most veterinary pharmacist positions have a salary that is significantly lower than traditional pharmacists
Importance & Relevance:
The human-animal bond has been recognized as beneficial to human health; healthy pets contribute to human wellness. Veterinarians are essential to the health of food-producing animals; human health is improved by having a healthy food supply.
For more information, you can contact:
Jim Budde, PharmD, FSVHP, DICVP
President, Society of Veterinary Hospital Pharmacists
Responsible for running the business of poultry farms, dairy farms, cattle ranches or other livestock-related agribusinesses. They must keep accurate financial records, supervise workers and ensure proper care and feeding of animals.
Post mortem examinations of animals to fnd cause of disease or confirmation of disease process. Involved in Post-mortem examinations of disease outbreaks, can work for local Public Health authorities or research instirute and recieves small or large animal Post-mortemss from hospitals and practices.
Reference: http://www.abva.co.uk
Acupuncture has evolved from the ancient art of placing needles into special locations on the body to alleviate pain, improve recovery rates and increase resistance to disease. Early research focused mainly on pain relief and the endogenous opioid responses to acupuncture, however, further advances have revealed potent normalizing effects to the hypothalamus and autonomic nervous system. This has opened the understanding of its use in all manner of internal medical disorders including respiratory, digestive, and reproductive problems.
Nutrition is an essential part of preventative health care and managing disease.Clinical Nutritionists provide nutritional support recommendations and management expertise regarding a wide variety of life stages, medical conditions and dietary preferences for dogs and cats.
A small animal clinical nutritionist, or veterinary nutritionist, is a veterinarian with a background in clinical practice who has undergone extensive training in nutrition, in addition to having experience teaching and conducting research and board certified.
A clinical nutritionist provide a supportive role, providing advice on feeding strategies, diet, and monitoring to the primary clinicians.
Depending on the pet’s health status and other factors, feeding plans may include commercially-available over-the-counter or therapeutic diets, home-prepared diets, diets specially prepared for tube-feeding, parenteral (IV) nutrition, and dietary supplements.
In addition to making recommendations specific to diet selection, clinical nutritionists provide information on ideal amounts, timing, and frequency of feeding, as well as the formulation of a plan for monitoring a pet’s response to dietary therapy.
Reference: http://www.vet.upenn.edu/veterinary-hospitals/ryan-veterinary-hospital/services/nutrition
Veterinarians who work with chickens, turkeys and/or ducks, usually in food production settings. Avian veterinarians are licensed animal health professionals who are qualified to diagnose and treat illnesses or injuries found in many species of birds.

Have a look in careers in One Health

An internship is not required and a three year residency programme and experience in research and a PhD is useful. Often they are involved in writing research papers and monthyl reports.
Lab Animals Veterinarian
Aquatic medicine
Holistic medicine
Public Health & Government
Global Veterinary Medicine
Pharmaceutical medicine
Clinical research
Pet food
Zoo Vet
Zoo Vets are specifcally employed by Zoos to work on improving health of animals under the Zoos protection. Zoo Vets work with a variety of animals and not only treating sick animals but provide supportive health care plans for each species, develop breeding plans and protocols. They are also involved in maintaining all the reports and documents and performing health care checks for import and export of animals regionally and internationally. Zoo Vets often publish articles and papers on diseases they have encountered to improve exotic medicine overall.
8-5 job usaully plus on-call service to Zoo or local Zoos.
Attending international conferences
Working in conservation with support from the Zoo
Support international aid to animal charities in developing countries
Support Zoo partners such as national parks in Africa.

Qualifications/experience required:
Bachelor of Veterinary Medicine and Surgery (BVMS) or higher.
A masters in conservation and exotic medicine. Experience in research and exotic animal practice.
Relevance & Importance:
Zoo Vets are at the forefront of developing new diagnostic, treatment and management protocols for exotic animal medicine.
Closely work with conservation groups and provide international support on animal aid charities.
Conduct clinical research to develop exotic medicine further.
Network with other Zoo or exotic vets.
Relevance & Importance:
As a veterinary radiologist, you will be part of an indispensable medical team in providing specific diagnosis to many medical conditions.
Undetake clinical research in imaging findings prevelant for certain diseases.
Expert in ultrasound, MRI, CAT scan, scintography, Radiography and other forms of imaging diagnostic measures.

Sales & Marketing
Technical support/advice on product
Marketing support
Salesforce training
Reactive responses to technical enquiries on Pharmacovigilance
Skill set:
People management- coaching, training, performance/business knowledge, creativity, teamwork, communication skills, sales/marketing skills, self-aware, planning & priority, networking, drive for results, customer service focus, ethics & values
Pharmaceutical companies internal structure is fluid and dynamic. There is always potential to change and relocate globally and thus there is not always a specific job title or routine...
Technical service
Technical support/advice on product
Data collection on pharmacovigilance
Compliance with regulations
Marketing support
Reactive responses to technical inquiries on Pharmacovigilance
Regulator affairs
Clinical development
Research & project management
Check out: Pfizer, Merck, CEVA, Bayer
Check out: Kinapse advisory consultants
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