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Strategies to Alleviate Uneven Development
Transcript of Strategies to Alleviate Uneven Development
Reasons for those variations (e.g.?) For this chapter, we are going to look at: Q: What can we do to help to overcome the problem of uneven development? Education Population
control Work &
Finance LDCs generally have fewer schools as compared to DCs ...hence the literacy rate is often very low refers to the % of adults in a country who can read and write The hill tribes of thailand... Farmers were also educated on the importance of sustainable farming and the various sustainable farming methods. While, the Hill Tribe Education Project did manage to help several communities improve on their agricultural production and economic oppotunities, the success was limited by the tribe's remote location and communication barriers between many of the volunteers and the tribe members. Volunteer teachers were brought in from more developed areas to live with the tribes and teach them. Subjects ranged from learning how to read and write Thai, Mathematics and other life skills. Water &
Sanitation vs. without access to clean water and proper sanitation...
...such areas tend to be less well developed. Therefore, governments have raised the importance of providing adequate infrastructure to ensure that the BASIC NEES of their citizens are well met. Ahmedabad:
41% live in slums and squatter settlemets
>25% not not have access to basic sanitation In the mid 1990s, the Parivartan Slum Networking Programme was established to help improve the living conditions of slum dweller Slum dwellers were equipped with basic infrastructure (e.g. clean water and sewage disposal) so as to reduce the spread of diseases Map of
INDIA Ahmedabad! The sanitation and water crisis affects billions of people globally, and results in the deaths of 4,000 children every single day. http://www.endwaterpoverty.org TWO IS ENOUGH (1970s) THREE OR MORE,
IF YOU CAN AFFORD IT (1990s) ??? (2010s) Having a large population means that more resources are needed to support the people. overpopulation overconsumption Why do you think India has so many slums? Why do they grow so rapidly? Strategies! ...effective? World Bank Established in 1966 to reduce poverty and improve the quality of life for people in the Asia Pacific region.
They focus on inclusive economic growth, environmentally sustainable growth, and regional integration..
GOOD GOVERNANCE (see p204) Providing Aid International
Organizations The World Bank is an international organisation that provides aid to LDCs to help them develop economically and socially. Money! Technical Assistance Refers to financial and/or technical assistance given by countries and/or organisations to help poor countries develop economically and socially "We are not a bank in the common sense... we provide low-interest loans, interest-free credits and grants to developing countries for a wide array of purposes."
"Our mission is to fight poverty with passion and professionalism for lasting results..." Raising awareness Through the Kecamatan Development Programme (KDP) in Indonesia, over US$890 million dollars was supplied by the World Bank to help benefit over 34,000 villages across Indonesia The money was used to help develop the villages (e.g. Sleepy Tirtomoyo, Surabaya) With a more reliable water supply, farmers can increase their crop output. CASE STUDY: INDONESIA
In 1998, Indonesia went through a major political upheaval and financial crisis. The Indonesian Rupiah devalued by more than 50 percent, causing many manufacturing industries to shut down. Thousands of people lost their jobs and this had a tremendous negative impact on people’s incomes. Since then, significant progress has been made over the past several years. However, many people remain poor and vulnerable, most notably in the rural areas. With 17,000 islands and millions of villages across the archipelago, the government has to reach out to its poorest areas to ensure that they too are equally endowed with the opportunity to grow and develop. Inequality and disparities between regions remain high. Visit:
Agreements United Nations Millennium
(UNMDG) United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea
(UNCLOS) Where world leaders meet and discuss on how to tackle world issues together The UNMDG is a long-term plan aimed at helping people in LDCs get out of poverty by 2015. There are 8 major issues involved: Founded in 1945 after World War II to to stop wars between countries, and serve as an international platform for dialogue and negotiation.
It aims to facilitate the development of international laws between countries; promote international security; encourage economic development, social progress, human rights and ultimately, ensure the achievement of world peace. The UNCLOS defines the rights and responsibilities of nations in their use of the world's oceans, establishing guidelines for businesses, the environment, and the management of marine natural resources. "Meeting all the targets by 2015 was always going to be a huge global challenge, and several are unlikely to be met, but... These are the greatest promises the world has ever made, and the pressure must be maintained to ensure that there is no reversal of the precious achievements."
(Source: Bunting, 2010, guardian.co.uk) Q: Do you think the UNMDG are practical targets? MICROFINANCE + = & ∴ ∴ = "Linking arms against poverty" ...and poverty Development strategies take TIME to unfold.
They are divided into LONG-TERM (5 yrs)
and SHORT-TERM (<5 yrs). The standard of living
and the quality of life... ...is generally HIGHER
in developed countries ...and LOWER in less developd countries 1 CHILD POLICY! aka 'The Little Emperor Syndrome' "Anyone who illegally gave birth to a second child would be punished, and the penalties would be dismissal from school, a downgrade in wages, or a fine. If you didn't have money to pay the fine, your house would be demolished or the furniture and appliances moved away by the family planning officials." Smokey Mountain 2 million pounds of garbage... After World War II, the country was for a time regarded as the second wealthiest in East Asia, next only to Japan!
However, due to government corruption and poor economic policies, the economy soon fell into decline. Indonesia Population: 230 million | Life expectancy: 71 yrs | GNI per capita: US$2,050 UNITED
NATIONS You can play a part too! Protect local
fishermen! strategies to alleviate uneven development RECAP Why? The UN Goodwill Ambassadors: "Celebrities attract attention, so they are in a position to focus the world’s eyes on the needs of children." Bangladesh Facts
Eighth most populous country in the world
The second largest Muslim country
Natural hazards: droughts, cyclones and floods Two-thirds are farmers
Poverty rate has fallen by 20% since the early 1990s.
Most significant obstacles to growth are poor governance and weak public institutions. In 1994, the ADB provided much needed financial and technical assistance to Bangladash for the construction of the Jamuna Multipurpose Bridge Project. "The bridge was to serve as a strategic link between the eastern and western part of the country, so as to promote inter-regional trade within the country, thereby encouraging economic growth" (see p205). WHAT?