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The French Revolution 2.0
Transcript of The French Revolution 2.0
Revolution -Napolean formed consulate
-1802 crowned emperor
-Signed peace treaty with Russia, GB, and Austria
-Made peace with Catholic Church
-Napoleonic code preserved rights
-War began again
-By 1807 French Empire was formed
-He wanted to spread the revolution to different regions of his empire How the French Revolution
Church Land was seized by government
thousands of clergy and
religious figures were exiled Church was beaten up and reduced to no power Committee of Public Safety ordered replacement of Catholic Church
Civic festivals replaced religious celebrations unsuccessful revolt by
Christians began in a region
of western France called the
Vendée, but it was stopped by Committee of Public Safety Before the Revolution:
Commoners in Estates-General:
-Formed national Assembly
-Avoid Higher Taxes
-Created Declaration of the
Rights of the Man and the Citizen a Republic was formed
Louis XVI was executed along with thousands of revolution opposers
European states made plans to invade France What was their solution? the National Convention formed the
Committee of Public Safety
the Committee led a 12 month
Reign of Terror In Response? The Start of the Revolution:
France in war with Austria
Commons stormed Bastille Prison
Louis the XVI captive
Led to: more violence Section 3 Committee of Public Safety
executed 40,000 suspected enemies and expunged signs of Catholic Influence
they raised the largest Army against European history and repelled against invading armies
With the crisis past, the National Convention ended the Reign of Terror and executed its zealous leader, Maximilien Robespierre. Power shifted into the hands of more
moderate middle-class leaders
who produced a constitution in 1795.
The constitution called for
a two-house legislative body
and an executive committee,
called the Directory The Domino Effect Why the unrest?
-The rich didn't care
-Debt The Cause of the French Revolution This caused:
Tennis Court Oath
Attack on Bastille
Drew up the Declaration
Forced the King to Concede
Attacked the Church
Paris Commune However, Napoleon restored the Church and made amends when he came to power as a consul. Timeline of Major Events Execution of Louis XVI
What led up to this? Louis XVI- King 1791-1793 -significant and powerful character of the French Revolution- a probable cause
many believed he wasn't an effective leader because France gained massive debt under his rule.
-disliked because of his indecisiveness and conservatism
-distrusted because of his planned escape to Varennes -His invasions contributing to the spread of nationalism and British sea power would lead to his fall.
-After the invasion of Russia, other nations attacked Napoleon and captured Paris.
-Napoleon was exiled and monarchy was restored
-Napoleon returned to power to face a military defeat against Prussian and British forces and be exiled again. France was ruled by absolute monarchy rigid social class Third Estate- helpless, no voice Bad harvests, inflation, unfair taxation bankrupt government
different political goals for each of the estates (classes) On the verge of crisis: Louis XVI proclaims Estates-General Meeting 1789 When King refused the Third Estate’s
demands for a new voting system, the
deputies swore to the Tennis Court Oath to
always meet until they had a new constitution The Tennis Court Oath The Storming of the Bastille Louis XVI planned to use force against the Third Estate, so 900 commoners stormed Bastille to obtain ammunition to fight back. After finding none, the Parisians angrily demolished the Bastille, and this event sparked many other revolts (part of the Great Fear) As a result: Declaration of the Rights of Man and the Citizen published Women force King Louis XVI to go to Paris
Marched 12 miles
Killed 2 guards
-Beginning of woman's roles in French Revolution Marie Antoinette
-Married Louis XVI
-Died in October 16, 1793 Louis XVI accepts the New Constitution 1791 1792 1793 usually from areas within Paris CHAOS 1794 Women form Society for Revolutionary Republican Women
-Fought for woman's rights
-dissolved October 1973
group of five rulers
known for corruption, political purges (removal of a person that gov’t doesn’t like), and extreme dependence on army 1795 Age of Napoleon 1799 Serene Bahi, Shrvani Balaji, Samantha Harper Paris Commune
-Became a commune
-Captured the King
-Nothing getting better War with Austria
-First War declared 1792 April
-Treaty of Lunéville ended the war After the King's execution, there was so much... In Response?
The National Convention gave the Commitee of Public Safety broad government powers to defend France from domestic threats
So began....THE REIGN OF TERROR Revolutionary Courts prosecuted counter-revolutionaries and traitors in brutal, inhumane ways
40,000 people were killed! Maximilien Robespierre One of Revolution's most important leaders
drew power from Paris Commune, and led the Great Terror
strived for democracy and universal male suffrage
advocated De-Christianization, but realized France would stay Catholic no matter what
abided by the policy 'The ends justify the means' Law of 22 Prairial Gave power to Robespierre to execute enemies of the Revolution
Deputies of the National Convention voted him to death
After 2 months, the law was repealed and prisoners were released Rise of the Revolutionary Army -French government raised an army over one million soldiers to fight foreign troops and invading countries Jacobins Girodins wanted centralized republic
felt King needed to be executed so he was not an enemy tried to influence officials supported revolution:
radicals instituted Reign of Terror usually represented areas outside Paris supported conservative change no official goal wanted King alive -Woman's rights under debate
-Became more active
-Focused on education
-Olympe de Gouges Versailles March Connection to Louisiana Purchase -Coup d'etat 1799
-Established peace with the Catholic Church 1801
- In 1802 consul for life
-in 1804 crowned himself Emperor
- Codified the laws Napoleon's Empire -France was at war with Russia, Great Britain, and Austria in 1799
- Wanted to end war for the French Revolution
-1802 peace treaty signed
-1803 war broke out again with Britain, joined by Russia, Sweden, Austria, and Prussia
- in 1807 Napoleon won and became “master of Europe”
-Forced states to ally against Britain
-Wanted to spread ideas of the revolution to the other parts of his empire -Created seven law codes
-Women were not as equal as men in the Civil Code
-Creating a new aristocracy of military officials
- Only around 22% were old regime nobles
-Monitored all writings and the publishing of anything
-Shut down 60 of 73 newspapers and banned books -Napoleon could not conquer Britain because of sea power
-Britain defeated the French-spanish attack in 1805
-Attempted Continental System
-Russia had refused to help Napoleon with his Continental System
-Napoleon decided to invade with 600,000 men
-Russia kept retreating
-Retreated, but only around 40,000 men returned
-Napoleon was exiled to the island of Elba -In 1803 sold the Louisiana Territory
-Louisiana territory originally French in 1682 and changed hands between Spain and France until in 1800 when France regained control
-Americans couldn't get to New Orleans -Thomas Jefferson threatened to become allies with Britain
-Napoleon offered the territory for $15 million
- Napoleon gained a lot of money for his military campaigns
-US doubled in size and got control of Mississippi river and the resources that came with it Watch your ego and hunger for power and control- don't be like Napoleon
avoiding rule, like Louis XVI never results in a peaceful outcome
Always plan ahead
Set up system for new ruler when current one dies What can we Learn Today? Sources
""Declaration of the Rights of Man and the Citizen" (August1789)." "Declaration of the Rights of Man and the Citizen" (August1789). N.p., n.d. Web. 14 Oct. 2012. <http://www.historyguide.org/intellect/declaration.html>.
"Olympe De Gouges." Olympe De Gouges. N.p., n.d. Web. 14 Oct. 2012. <http://www.dadalos.org/int/menschenrechte/Grundkurs_MR3/frauenrechte/woher/portraets/olympe_de_gouges.htm>.
"Revolutions of France." : The Society Of Revolutionary Republican Women. N.p., n.d. Web. 14 Oct. 2012. <http://revolutionsoffrance.blogspot.com/p/society-of-revolutionary-republican.html>.
"French Revolutionary Wars." Wikipedia. Wikimedia Foundation, 14 Oct. 2012. Web. 14 Oct. 2012. <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/French_Revolutionary_Wars>.
"Tennis Court Oath." Wikipedia. Wikimedia Foundation, 13 Oct. 2012. Web. 14 Oct. 2012. <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tennis_Court_Oath>.
"Liberty Equality, Fraternity: Exploring the French Revolution." Chapter 5 Page 2. N.p., n.d. Web. 14 Oct. 2012. <http://chnm.gmu.edu/revolution/chap5b.html>.
"World History: French Revolution: Robespierre." World History: French Revolution: Robespierre. N.p., n.d. Web. 14 Oct. 2012. <http://www.historywiz.com/historymakers/robespierre.htm>.
"Olympe De Gouges." Olympe De Gouges. N.p., n.d. Web. 15 Oct. 2012. <http://www.dadalos.org/int/menschenrechte/Grundkurs_MR3/frauenrechte/woher/portraets/olympe_de_gouges.htm>. "Revolutions of France." : The Society Of Revolutionary Republican Women. N.p., n.d. Web. 15 Oct. 2012. <http://revolutionsoffrance.blogspot.com/p/society-of-revolutionary-republican.html>.
"French Revolutionary Wars." Wikipedia. Wikimedia Foundation, 14 Oct. 2012. Web. 15 Oct. 2012. <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/French_Revolutionary_Wars>.
"Tennis Court Oath." Wikipedia. Wikimedia Foundation, 13 Oct. 2012. Web. 15 Oct. 2012. <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tennis_Court_Oath>.
"Declaration of the Rights of Man and the Citizen" (August1789)." "Declaration of the Rights of Man and the Citizen" (August1789). N.p., n.d. Web. 15 Oct. 2012. <http://www.historyguide.org/intellect/declaration.html>.
"Liberty Equality, Fraternity: Exploring the French Revolution." Chapter 5 Page 2. N.p., n.d. Web. 15 Oct. 2012. <http://chnm.gmu.edu/revolution/chap5b.html>.
"World History: French Revolution: Robespierre." World History: French Revolution: Robespierre. N.p., n.d. Web. 15 Oct. 2012. <http://www.historywiz.com/historymakers/robespierre.htm>. The Directory begins to Rule