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Mindmap

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by

Shi Min

on 31 March 2013

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Transcript of Mindmap

Vitamins/Minerals Fat soluble Water soluble Vitamin A(Retinol)
Functions:
-Needed for healthy skin,vision & growth and development of body
-Antioxidant
-Provides resistance to infections
Sources:
-Liver
-Oily fish
-Milk
-Egg yolk
-Red, yellow & orange colored fruit & vegetables
Deficiencies:
-Night Blindness
-Dry & rough skin
-Poor growth in children
-Loss of sight
Toxicity:
-Fatigue
-Painful joints
-Birth defects in babies
-Nausea & diarrhoea
-Liver & nervous system damage
-Hair loss
-Skin disorders Vitamin D(Cholecalciferol)
Functions:
-Form strong bones & teeth
-Helps body to absorb calcium & phosphorus
Sources:
-Oily fish
-Milk
-Liver
Egg yolk
-Sunlight(non-food source)
Deficiencies:
-Rickets in children
-Osteomalacia in adults
-Weak bones & teeth
Toxicity:
-Hypercalcemia Vitamin E(Tocopherol)
Functions:
-Antioxidant
-For healthy nerves & muscles
Sources:
-Vegetable oils
-Whole-grain food
-Egg yolk
-Nuts
-Liver
Deficiencies:
-Rare
Toxicity:
-Rare Vitamin K(Naphthoquinone)
Functions:
-Helps to clot blood properly
Sources:
-Liver
-Green leafy vegetables
-Legumes
-Vegetable oils
Deficiencies:
-Blood not able to clot properly
Toxicity:
-Rare Vitamin B1(Thiamin)
Functions:
-Helps to break down food into energy
-Needed for normal functioning of nerves
Sources:
-Meat
-Soya beans
-Peas
-Cereals
-Nuts
-Mushrooms
Deficiencies:
-Beriberi
Toxicity:
-None known Vitamin B2(Riboflavin)
Functions:
-Helps release energy from food
-Needed for growth & development
Sources:
-Diary products
-Eggs
-Meat
-Liver
-Soya beans
-Green leafy vegetables
Deficiencies:
-Ariboflavinosis
Toxicity:
-None known Vitamin B3(Niacin)
Functions:
-Helps release energy from carbohydrates & fats
Sources:
-Meat
-Fish
-Poultry
-Potatoes
-Whole-grain food
-Liver
Deficiencies:
-Pellagra
Toxicity:
-Flushing of skin
-Tingling sensation in hands & feet
-Liver damage
-Blurred vision
-Glucose intolerance Vitamin B6(Pyridoxine)
Functions:
-Needed to produce & break down amino acids
Sources:
-Whole grain food
-Meat
-Fish
-Potatoes
-Poultry
-Liver
Deficiencies:
-Numbness in limbs
-Dermatitis
-Anaemia
-Convulsion
Toxicity:
-Nerve damage
-Skin lesions Vitamin B9(Folate/Folic acid)
Functions:
-Helps release energy from amino acids
-Helps form new cells & genetic materials(DNA)
-Works w/ vitamin B12 & iron to produce red blood cells
Sources:
-Milk
-Cereals
-Liver
-Green leafy vegetables
-Citrus fruit
Whole-grain food
Deficiencies:
-Anaemia
-Spina bifida in babies
-Premature & low birth weight babies
Toxicity:
-None known Vitamin B12(Cobalamin)
Functions:
-Form red blood cells
-Normal functioning of nerves
-Maintain enzymes system
Sources:
-Dairy products
-Meat
-Poultry
-Fish
-Eggs
Deficiencies:
-Pernicious
-Anaemia
Toxicity:
-None known Vitamin C(Ascorbic acid)
Functions:
-Antioxidant
-Form proteins
-Helps body to absorb iron from cereals & dark green vegetables
Maintain healthy skin, heals cuts & wounds
Sources:
-Citrus fruit
-Guava
-Honeydew
-Cauliflower
-Cabbage
-Spinach
Deficiencies:
-Scurvy
Toxicity:
-Diarrhoea
-Nausea
-Abdominal cramps
-Formation of kidney stones Types of minerals:
-Calcium
-Potassium
-Phosphorus
-Sodium Chloride
-Iron
-Iodine Calcium(major mineral)
Functions:
-Works w/ phosphorus & vitamin D to build bones & teeth
-Normal blood clotting
-Needed for muscular & nerve functions
Sources:
-Dairy products
-Fish w/ edible bones
-Vegetables
-Tofu
Deficiencies:
-Osteoporosis
Toxicity:
-Formation of kidney stones
-Prevents absorption of other minerals Potassium(major mineral)
Functions:
-Works w/ sodium to regulate fluid movement in & out
-Essential for muscle development & nerve functions
Sources:
-Fruit
-Vegetables
-Diary products
-Seafood
-Whole-grain food
-Meat
Deficiencies:
-Loss of appetite
-Fatigue
-Muscle weakness
Toxicity:
-Heart attacks Phosphorus(major mineral)
Functions:
-Works w/ calcium & vitamin D to build & maintain bones & teeth
-Required for conversion of carbohydrates & fats into energy
-Maintain fluid balance in body
Sources:
-Dairy products
-Meat
-Fish
-Eggs
-Cereals
Deficiencies:
-Bone loss
-Stunted growth
-Poor dental health
Toxicity:
-Spasms
-Convulsions Sodium Chloride(major mineral)
Functions:
-Produce hydrochloric acid in stomach
-Sodium allows the control of nerves & muscles
-Regulate fluid in our body
Sources:
-Table salt
-Wide variety of fresh food
-Seasonings
-Processed food
Deficiencies:
-Muscle cramps
-Diarrhoea
-Vomiting
Toxicity:
-Bloating & swelling of tissues due to water retention
-Hypertension Iron(trace mineral)
Functions:
-Formation of haemoglobin & myoglobin
-Required for cellular respiration
Sources:
-Red meat
-Liver
-Egg yolk
-Dark green vegetables
-Cereals
Deficiencies:
-Anaemia
-Abnormal & continuous bleeding
Poor immune system
Toxicity:
-Diarrhoea
-Dizziness
-Rapid heartbeat
-Damage to heart, kidney, liver & central nervous system Iodine(trace mineral)
Functions:
-Produce thyroxine
-Promotes general growth & development of body
Sources:
-Seafood
-Seaweed
-Iodized salt
Deficiencies:
-Slow physical & mental processes
-Weight gain
-Lethargy
Toxicity:
-Acne-like lesions on skin
-Goitre Fruits/Vegetables Fruit Vegetables Type:
-Pome
Eg. Apple & pear
-Drupe
Eg. Plum & peach
-Melon
Eg. Watermelon & honeydew
-Citrus fruit
Eg. Orange & lemon
-Berry
Eg. Strawberry & blueberry
-Tropical fruit
Eg. Banana & mango
-Dried fruit
Eg. Raisin & prune Nutrients:
-Simple sugars
Eg. Glucose & fructose
-Fats
-All vitamins except vitamin D
-All minerals except sodium chloride, iron & iodine
-Magnesium
-Maganese
-Copper
-Zinc
-Water
-Dietary fibre Uses:
-Eaten raw
-Pureed
-In salad
-As garnish
-In desserts
Eg. puddings, tarts & pies Choosing:
-Good color
-Firm when touched
-No visible damages
-Free of punctures, bruises or decay
-Skin free of wrinkles
-In season Link Types:
-Bulbs
Eg. Onion & garlic
-Roots
Eg. Carrot, turnip & radish
-Leaves
Eg. Cabbage & lettuce
-Stems
Eg. Asparagus & celery
-Flowers
Eg. Broccoli & cauliflower
-Fruits
Eg. Tomato & chilli
-Tubers
Eg. Potato & tapioca Nutrients:
-Simple/complex carbohydrates
Eg. starch & sugars
-All vitamins except vitamin D
-All minerals except sodium chloride & iodine
-Magnesium
-Sulphur
-Dietary fibre
-Water Uses:
-Fried
-Steamed
-Boiled
-Stewed
-Braised
-Baked
-Grilled
-Roasted
-In salad Choosing:
-Strong, rich color
-Fruit veggie ->firm, smooth, free of blemishes & bruises
-Veggie leaves ->firm, crisp & w/o insect or worm-eaten holes
-Root veggie ->firm, w/o blemishes & no signs of sprouting
-In season Tips to minimize loss of nutrients:
-Ensure veggie are fresh
-Do not soak veggie in water
-Rinse leafy veggie gently to prevent bruising the leaves
-Keep leaves of veggie intact
-Peel veggie thinly
-Prepare veggie just before cooking
-Boil veggie in small amount of water
-Cook veggie in a fairly short time
-Serve salads immediately
Water & Dietary Fibre Dietary Fibre Recommended Daily Intake:
-2 Servings of fruits
-2 Servings of veggie
-2-3 servings of whole-grain & wholemeal food Link Functions:
-Maintain healthy digestive system
-Lowers blood cholesterol level
-Regulates blood glucose level
-Provides high satiety value Types:
-Insoluble dietary fibre
-Soluble dietary fibre Sources:
-Insoluble dietary fibre
-stems. leaves & skin of veggie
-Skin of fruit
-Wheat bran
-Wholemeal bread
-Corn
-Peanuts
-Long beans
-Soluble dietary fibre
-plums
-apples
-citrus fruit
-oats
-barley
-pulses Effects of intake:
-Insufficient intake
-Constipation
-Diverticulosis
-Colorectal cancer
-Haemorrhid
-Excessive intake
-Intestinal gas
-Bloating
-Poor absorption of nutrients
Water Functions:
-Regulation of body temperature
-Removal of waste products
-Medium of chemical reactions
-Transportation of nutrients
-Lubrication of joints & organs Sources:
-Water
-Juices
-Milk
-Soups
-Fruit
-Veggie
-Meat
-Poultry Recommended Daily Intake:
-1.5-2 litres of water
(6-8 glasses) Effects of intake:
-Insufficient intake
-Dehydration
-Constipation
-Excessive intake
-Water intoxication
Full transcript