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Argumentative Writing

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Erica Czernicki

on 14 March 2016

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Transcript of Argumentative Writing

Main idea: Central idea of a passage
Supporting Detail: other points or details that reinforce (support) the main idea
How does it all fit together?
You've got the proof, but how does it fit?
A good essay must have this permanent quality about it; it must draw its curtain round us, but it must be a curtain that shuts us in not out.
—Virginia Woolf
Importance and Relevance
Including Evidence
Sources and Texts
paraphrasing
: when a writer expresses the ideas of another person by using different words. This is usually done to make things clear for the reader. A citation is still needed.
internal citation
: when an author gives credit to the source of his/her information in the same line as the information itself.

"We've got a huge obesity problem in this country, and it's due in part to excess calorie consumption outside the home," said Michael Taylor, the deputy commissioner for foods at the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA).
primary source
: a first-hand account of an event or time period, factual—not interpretive. Examples include results of research studies, results of scientific experiments, interviews, speeches, songs, photographs, etc.

secondary source
: analyzes and interprets primary sources, analyzes and interprets research results. Examples include biographies, histories, newspaper articles, essays, etc.

credible source
: a source is credible (appropriate and strong) if it is current, relevant, from a person with authority in that field, accurate, and published with the intention of providing unbiased information.

bias
: a personal leaning toward specific motives (intentions)
$1.25
Thursday, January 29, 2015
Vol XCIII, No. 311
Terms about structure...
Structure Matters
Texts can inform us, persuade us, and entertain us.
Author's Purpose
Thesis
: clearly states your side of the argument and why you hold that position. A thesis should clarify a narrow topic, express the opinion on the topic, and have an academic tone.

Schools should require students to perform mandatory community service hours because it teaches students about their world, improves the lives of community members, and makes students more civically engaged.
author's purpose
: Determine why the author wrote the piece you are reading. Was he/she trying to present the best side of an argument, reflect on experience, analyze the strengths and weaknesses and of a debate, persuade you to change your views? Knowing this will help you to determine if a source is credible as well as the type of text you are reading.

informational text
: Authors of informational articles attempt to inform their readers of a situation. They are merely reporting to readers, as opposed to persuading readers. Thesis statements of informational articles do not reflect an attempt to persuade. Instead, they show that the author merely wishes to share information. What would an example be?

argumentative text
: Arguments are persuasive efforts. The author is trying to convince you of something. Thesis statements of arguments reveal the author’s conclusion: the thing the author is trying to convince you of. As you read various articles during your research, look for thesis statements that attempt to convince you of something. If you find a thesis of this type, you will know that you are reading an argument. What would an example be?
Argumentative Writing
Claim
: a general statement or judgement that connects to your thesis and can be supported with evidence.
An Explanation = Claim + Evidence + Reasoning
Posting calorie counts on menus is critical because it is not always obvious which dishes are the healthiest choices.
"Trying to find the healthy options when dining out can be more difficult than you think," said Senator Tom Harkin (D, Iowa), the co-author of the national calorie-count requirement in the health-reform package. "Even a salad can be loaded with hidden fat and sodium."
Indeed, nutritionists note that coffee drinks can range from 20 to 800 calories, and hamburgers can range from 250 to more than 1,000 calories. Without calorie counts on the menus to guide them, customers can very easily consume their daily calorie requirement in one sitting without even realizing it.
Evidence
: the support or facts that back up your claim. Facts must be truth and unable to be argued. These facts can come from articles, studies, speeches, etc.
Reasoning
: the logical connection between a claim and the supporting fact. Sometimes this will be clear without explanation, but usually, the writer needs to explain how and why a particular piece of evidence is good support for a claim.
Counterclaim
: the opposing position (also known as a counter argument). Counterclaims are provable and supportable with reasons and evidence. When planning an argument, you need to know that the other side may say so that you can disprove it with your own reasons and evidence.

Still, a number of those opposed to calorie-posting requirements claim that these requirements have no effect on the consumer;
however, this argument comes from incomplete studies of the calorie-posting requirement.
Transition
: a word, phrase, or sentence that connects paragraphs and explains the connections between various paper ideas.
parenthetical citation
: When you quote or paraphrase from another person's work, you need a citation. A parenthetical citation follows the borrowed information in parenthesis.

This point had already been argued (Johnson 12-13).
Paraphrase
the following example on your gold sheet.

Even if only 10-20% of people change their eating habits, the United States could save hundres of millions of dollars in obesity-related health care costs.
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