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Transcript of Pharmacist prescribing
Non-medical Prescribing Pharmacist Prescribing Worldwide Canada, USA, UK, Ireland, Scotland, South Africa*, Australia, and New Zealand Prescribing Models Pharmacist Prescibing An Evolution in
Pharmacy Practice x R Michelle Mercado
January 31, 2013 Objectives 1. Determine the status of pharmacist prescribing
2. Illustrate pharmacist prescribing models 3. Differentiate prescribing models based on their level of independence 1992 1998 2006 2005 2003 Cumberledge
Report etc. The Medicinal Products:
Prescription by Nurses etc. Act 1992 1986 Independent Prescribing Patient Group Directions Prescribing by Formulary Independent prescribing
Prescribing by protocol
Patient group directions
Prescribing by formulary
Prescribing by patient referral
Collaborative prescribing Prescribing by Protocol Prescribing by Patient Referral Repeat Prescribing Supplementary Prescribing Collaborative Prescribing Requirements: Independent Prescribing Requirement: pioneered by Florida VA pharmacists in outpatient clinics
model for federal agencies (US Army and Indian Health Service) Prescribing by Protocol Emergency Contraceptives
Apomorphine PharmD or MS degree, or equivalent qualification
specialty board certification or two years of clinical experience Applications in practice: Sample protocols: Patient Group Directions Requirement: Dedicated training A patient was admitted to the ED a badly infected cut. consultation form referral Consult attending MD CMP Template No specific qualification Requirement: completed nonmedical prescribing course Collaborative Prescribing Primary References Courtenay, M, Carey, N, and Burke, J 2007. ‘Independent extended and supplementary nurse prescribing practice in the UK: A national questionnaire survey.’ International Journal of Nursing Studies. vol. 44. pp. 1093–1101. Available from: http://scele.org/web_scele/archivos/Prescricpion%20enfermera_2007.pdf [05 Dec 2012].
Emmerton, L, Marriott, J, Bessell, T, Nissen, L and Dean, L 2005. ‘Pharmacists and Prescribing Rights: Review of International Developments.’ Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences. vol. 2. pp. 217-225. Available from: http://www.ualberta.ca/~csps/JPPS8(2)/L.Emmerton/pharmacists.pdf [05 Dec 2012].
Hacking, S and Taylor, J 2010. ‘An evaluation of the scope and practice of Non Medical Prescribing in the North West For NHS North West.’ Available from: http://184.108.40.206/document_uploads/Audit/pfs_FinalNMP10.09.10.pdf [01 Dec 2012].
Hoti K, Hughes J, Sunderland B 2011. ‘An expanded prescribing role for pharmacists – an Australian perspective.’ Australasian Medical Journal. vol. 4. pp. 236-242. Available from http://www.amj.net.au/index.php?journal=AMJ&page=article&op=view File&path%5B%5D=790&path%5B%5D=771 [05 Dec 2012].
National Prescribing Center n/a. ‘Non Medical Prescribing: Information for nursing and midwifery students.’ Available from: http://www3.shu.ac.uk/hwb/placements/nursing/documents/Prescribing%20-%20nursing%20and%20midwifery.pdf [08 Dec 2012].
Nissen,L and Greg, K 2010. ‘Non-medical prescribing in Australia.’ Australian Prescriber. vol. 33 pp.166–167. Available from: http://www.australianprescriber.com/magazine/33/6/166/7 [05 Dec 2012].
Pharmacist Prescribing Task Force 2009. ‘Prescribing by Pharmacists: Information Paper.’ Canadian Journal of Hospital Pharmacy. vol. 63. pp. 267-274. Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2901790/ [01 Dec 2012].
The Pharmacy Guild of Australia 2004. ‘Community Pharmacy Roadmap Program Development Template: Pharmacist Prescribing.’ Available from: http://www.guild.org.au/iwov-resources/documents/The_Guild/PDFs/News%20and%20Events/Publications/The %20Roadmap/D6%20 Pharmacist%20Prescribing_AD%20Jan%202012.pdf [05 Dec 2012].
Tonna, AP 2008. ‘An international overview of some pharmacist prescribing models.’ Journal of the Malta College of Pharmacy Practice. Issue 14. pp. 20-26. Available from: www.mcppnet.org/publications/ISSUE14-5.pdf [01 Dec 2012].
Tonna, AP, Stewart,D and McCaig D 2007. ‘Pharmacist prescribing in the UK – a literature review of current practice and research.’ Journal of Clinical Pharmacy and Therapeutics. vol. 32. pp. 545–556. Available from: www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18021331 [01 Dec 2012]. Summary of Prescribing Models
based on their level of independence assessment
clinical management Applications in practice:
completed a Non Medical Prescribing course diagnosed/undiagnosed diagnosed assessment
management PGD Template PGD supply and/or
clinical management assessment
management diagnosed diagnosed diagnosed assessment protocol formulary CMP diagnosed assessment
management diagnosed referral assessment
diagnosed State Pharmacy
Medical Board Summary of Prescribing Models used in various countries All models except collaborative prescribing Independent prescribing, collaborative
prescribing Independent prescribing, prescribing by protocol, prescribing by formulary, repeat prescribing, supplementary prescribing, collaborative prescribing Prescribing by protocol, repeat prescribing