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LING PSY SLHS 341 Fast Mapping
Transcript of LING PSY SLHS 341 Fast Mapping
Hi, my name is Merly Torres, and today I will be present you with a topic that interests me.
I am interested in the way bilinguals learn new vocabulary. Because there are different ways bilingual children learn new vocabulary, I decided to focus on fast mapping.
My research question:
Is the fast mapping process the same in the two languages or better in L1 than in L2?
What is fast mapping?
Fast mapping is one’s ability to create a preliminary form-meaning association or map after one or two exposures to a new phonological form, without explicit instruction by an adult (Hu, 2012).
A fast mapping task is administered without specific feedback or teaching, which is done in a short period of time (Fong Kan & Kohnert, 2008).
In addition, there is little research on foreign language learners’ fast mapping process. This is due, to the belief that the best approach to teach them new vocabulary, is through direct instruction in the classroom (Gershkoff-Stowe & Hahn, 2007).
Today, researchers have changed their perspective of the way we learn a new language's vocabulary.
They now believe that foreign language learners have the ability to make meaning of words in a communicative context (Hu, 2012).
Researchers are now focusing on how foreign language learners can map and untaught word to its referent in the absence of direct instruction.
Earlier studies have proposed that children learn the meaning of a new word in two separate phrases:
Chienh-Fang Hu conducted a study to examine the abilities of children who were learning English as a foreign language (EFL) learners by using the technique of fast mapping. This technique involved the process of foreign language vocabulary learning that was presented, “in a nonostentive context after only one or two exposure to the new word” (Hu, 2012).
The results of this study revealed that foreign learners were better at fast mapping in their first language than their second language
Furthermore, fast mapping also consists of these two phases.
There is the Exposure Phase, which is when the child hears a novel word form (e.g kub) and sees its corresponding referent(e.g a small piece of colored foam)
Then there is the Probe Phase. In this phase, the child is asked to name the new object (expressive probe) or to identify the object that corresponds to the new word said by the examiner (receptive probe).
The exposure and probe phases are usually used in activities such as packing or unpacking a picnic basket using a combination of novel and familiar objects. (Fong Kan & Kohnert, 2008)
These are some examples of how fast mapping works.
a. The first phase is the fast mapping phase, this is when the child establishes an initial link between word and referent.
b. The second phase is a subsequent, slow mapping phase.
In the first phase the child only obtains partial knowledge of the meaning of the word, but in the second stage they acquire its complete meaning because of additional experience (Gershkoff-Stowe & Hahn, 2007).
Researchers have recognized that the in early lexical acquisition, fast mapping involves the contribution of attention and memory. Cognitive processes are also important for fast mapping(Gershkoff-Stowe & Hahn, 2007).
Pui Fong Kan and Kathryn Kohnert from the University of Minnesota did an interesting study of fast mapping on monolingual and bilingual children.
Because their scores were greater in L1 than L2, this helped answer my question. There is a difference in fast mapping between both languages and children do better in their native language. They have a higher vocabulary in their native language. In class we learned about learning vocabulary by fast mapping. I believe it is an interesting way to learn new words.
In one session, the bilingual participants learned an English novel word that was associated to a novel object and in another session the word was given in their native language.
Fast mapping is slightly similar to incidental vocabulary learning. Incidental learning occurs in extensive reading, which is the major avenue to second language (L2) acquisition.
The difference is that incidental learning occurs after the acquisition of the first few thousand most common words.
Fast mapping does not require the prior knowledge of the most common words
In this study, the participants were typically developing children between the ages of 3;0 to 5;3. They all were native speakers of Hmong (L1) and English was the second language(l2) they were learning. Several fast mapping tasks and vocabulary knowledge tasks were administered in L1 and L2.
In this study, children did somewhat better in L1 than L2 in the fast mapping tasks. Bilinguals did better at the receptive probes and in other studies, monolinguals did better at the expressive probes. Last, they found that the higher vocabulary knowledge they had in their native language, led to a better fast mapping of new English words (Fong Kan & Kohnert, 2008).
Bilingual children's fast mapping performance reflect the process of mapping L1 and L2 phonological forms to the same referent. In contrast, monolingual do it to the one-form-one meaning process.
Fong Kan, P., & Kohnert, K. (2008). Fast mapping by bilingual preschool children. Cambridge Journals, 35, 495-514.
Gershkoff-Stowe, L., & Hahn, E. R. (2007). Fast mapping skills in the developing lexicon. 50, 682-697.
Hu, C. (2012). Fast-mapping and Deliberate Word-Learning by EFL children. Modern Language Journal, 96(3), 439-453.