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PSYCHOLOGY OF TRAVEL
Transcript of PSYCHOLOGY OF TRAVEL
Understanding tourists requires a background on psychology and consumer behavior. sYnoPsIs 1. To show awareness of factors motivating people to travel
2. To clarify the relationship of needs, wants, and motives to tourist motivation
3. To explain the relation between Maslow's hierarchy of needs and the travel motivations listed in travel literature
4. To describe the characteristics of psychocentrics and allocentrics
5. To get acquanted with the characteristics of travelers based on purpose of travel
6. To analyze the travel constraints OBJECTIVES Motivation for travel
The need for Escape or Changes
Effect of Consistency and Complexity on Leisure Travel
Business Travelers Attending Meetings, Conventions, Congress Several Studies of tourist motivations have listed various reasons why people travel. Some of these motivations listed in travel literature are:
3.Relief of Tension
9.Roots or ethnic
10.Maintain social contacts
11.Convince oneself of one’s achievements
12.Show one’s importance to others
13.Status and prestige
19.Interest in foreign areas
20.Scenery Motivation for Travel 1.Physical motivators – include those related to physical rest, sports participation, beach recreation, relaxing entertainment and other motivations directly connected with health.
2.Cultural motivators – include the desire to know about other countries – their music, art, folklore, dances, paintings and religion
3.Interpersonal motivators – pertain to the desire to meet other people, visit friends or relatives, escape from family and neighbors.
4.Status and prestige motivators – concern ego needs and personal development. Included in this group are trips related to business , conventions, study and pursuit of hobbies and education. Travel would enhance one’s recognition and good reputation. Basic travel motivators can be divided into four classes: The key to understand tourist motivation is to view vacation travel as a vehicle to satisfy one’s needs and wants. Tourists do not go on vacations just to relax and have fun, to experience another culture or to educate themselves and their children. They take vacations in the belief that these vacation will satisfy, either completely or partially, various needs and wants. Travel as a Means to Satisfy a Need and Want Relationship of Needs, Wants, and Motives Needs Satisfy Objectives Marketing Motivation Wants Suggests Self-esteem
(self-confidence,recognition) Maslow's hierarchy of needs This hierarchy suggests that lower needs demand more immediate satisfaction than the satisfaction of higher needs. The first needs is physical; the other four are physiological. To this original list, two intellectual needs were added. These are:
1. To know and understand – acquiring knowledge.
2. Aesthetics – appreciation of beauty.
The relationship between needs, motives and references from tourism literature is shown in Table 1.
• “To escape” or “to relieve tension”
• Passive and active
• Health and recreation
• Belonging and love
• Organized tour
• Motivation is referred to as the “VFR” market “visit friends and relatives” Self-actualization
(realizing one's potential) The greatest reason for travel can be summed up in one word, “escape” – escape from the dull daily routine; escape from the familiar, the commonplace, the ordinary; escape from the job, the boss, the customers, the house and the accelerated pace of modern life.
Everyone is searching for change , According to a marketing research Director Russ Johnston.
Travel can provide diversity.
It removes a person from familiar surrounding to something that is new and exciting. The need for Escape or changes Travel for Health Development in the field of medicine have influenced travel for centuries, giving rise to the concept of HEALTH TOURISM.
The search for health and long life has popularized the spas, seaside resorts as well sun resorts. Majority of people think of vacationing as a means of regaining one’s energies, interest and enthusiasm for the job. Interest in sports is attracting large segments of the population. people demand activity and excitement during their leisure hours to relieve them from the boredom of their work. spoRts Much travel grows out of the social nature of people. Human beings are social animals. They need contact and communication with others. They feel comfortable in a tour group.
According to Charles Metelka, travel increases the “Sociability Resources” of individuals. It makes them more interesting to themselves and to others. SoCIAl ContraCt The search for knowledge and truth is inherent in every individual. Travel offers an opportunity to satisfy the urge to learn. Once an interest has been developed in a destination area, the urge to see that area emerges and the interest grows as knowledge increases. Travel for Education The notion of personal values is important travel motivator. Many people are urged to travel to satisfy personal values such as the search for spiritual experience patriotism and wholesomeness. Personal Values Cultural Experiences Cross-cultural exchanges,experiencing how other people live and fostering international understanding are some of the reasons to satisfy curiosity about other cultures, lifestyles and places. Shopping and Bargain Hunting To many people, the joys derived from buying certain goods may be the major reason for travel. Almost everybody wants to buy and to bargain.
Bargain hunting or being able to get special merchandise at low cost is a travel motivator. Edward J. Mayo and Lance Jervis in The Psychology of Leisure Travel believe that individuals differ in the amount of psychological tension they can handle. To reduce the tension he will attempt to introduce some complexity in his life.
This example why tourist, who for many years spent his vacation spot, will either change the destination or the method of retching it.
Similarly, too much complexity may result in more tension than a person can endure. For example, a Filipino tourist in Europe may find the different language and culture (complexity) need to be balanced by staying in a hotel chain with which he is familiar (consistency) Effect of Consistency and
Complexity on Leisure Travel Stanley C. Plug, a biological researcher, classified travelers based on their different personalities as psychometrics and allocentrics.
Psychometrics or people centered on self, are inhibited and adventuresome .When traveling, they prefer to visit ‘safe” destination. The low-energy psychocentric is quite content to stay home. The high-energy psyshocentric will take a tour that is completely arranged at the destination.
ALLOCENTRICS,or people having interest and attention on other person, are highly curious and thrive on stimulation and change. They have a strong need variety and new experiences. They want to explore and discover and go on their own rather than buy package tours. The low-energy all centric is still curious and adventuresome but foregoes the more demanding schedule. The high-energy allocentrics is the hiker, the biker, the driver; he prefers activities with high activity level.
Between the pscychocentric and the allocentics is the midcentrics.The Midcentrics constitutes the mass market or the bulk of the population. Classification of Travellers
Based on Personality The two major classification of travellers based on travel-purpose are
the business travellers
pleasure/personal travellers. Classification of Travellers Based on Purpose of Travel Major of travelers in most develop countries such as the United States, Canada, and the United Kingdom are business travellers.
1.Regular Business travellers
2.Business travellers attending meeting, convention, and congresses
3.Incentive travelers Business Travelers Among business travelers, the cost of the trip is shouldered by a company .Hence; travel is not influence by personal income. The volume and rate of growth of business travel is not greatly affected by the cost of travel. This means that business travelers will continue even if the price of travel service increases.
The surveys show that there are major differences between male and female business travelers.
*Women business travellers are slightly younger.
*They tend to stay longer at their destination.
*They are more apt to be unmarried than males.
*They are more likely to a book through a travel agent.
*They have greater preference for downtown accommodation facilities closer to work.
They are more concerned with security aspects of accommodation facilities. Regular Business Travelers Business Travelers Attending Meetings, Conventions,Congresses Travel Pulse surveys that 20% of all businesses travel trips are for the purpose of attending meetings, conventions, congresses. It’s a regular formalized meeting of association or body on a regular or ad hoc basis.
Four Kinds of Conventions:
1.International conventions- involve members and nonmembers for more than two foreign countries and they take place in different countries every year.
2.Continental conventions- have delegates coming from a continent such as North America, Europe or Asia.
3.National conventions- are meetings organized by associations at the state, provincial or regional level.
4.Regional conventions. Incentive Travelers: It is a special type of business travel. It is a travel given by firms to employees as a reward for some accomplishment or to encourage employees to achieve more than what is required. Incentive trips have risen sharply according to the Society of Incentive Travel Executives (SITE). Incentive trips last for 5 days. Prize trips are often combined with business and sales meetings especially those to foreign destinations in order to eligible for tax deduction.
They act as specialized types of tour wholesalers. To their prices, they add a markup of 15-20% for their services and costs in packaging the incentive travel trip.
Corporations usually have the following objectives in buying incentive travel trips:
1.Increase overall sales volumes
2.Sell new accounts
3.Improve morale and good will
4.Introduce new product
5.Offset competitive promotions
6.Bolster slow seasons
7.Help in sales training
8.Sell slow items
9.Obtain more store displays and support consumer promotions.
Companies who buy incentive travel trips are usually those involved in insurance sales, electronics/ radio/ television manufacturing, automobile and truck manufacturing, farm equipment manufacturing, electrical appliances manufacturing, building materials manufacturing, etc… Pleasure/ Personal Travelers: This group consists of people traveling vacation or pleasure. They are also called non- business travelers.
Pleasure/ Personal travelers are classified into the following categories:
2.Family pleasure travelers
4.Singles and couples Resort Travelers Surveys have shown that resort travelers are better educated, have higher household incomes and are more likely to have professional and managerial positions. It is also notable that majority of resort travelers have families with children. Family Pleasure Travelers The family pleasure travelers can be divided into 3 groups:
1. The Junior families- families with parents aged 20-34 having preschool and or grade school children only.
2. Mid-range families- with parents aged 35-44 or over with grade school and or high school children only.
3. Mature families- families with parents aged 45 or over with children who are of high school age and older. The Elderly An examination of population trends in developed countries particularly in North-America clearly indicates that the population is aging. At present, there are many people in the retirement age category. These population shifts have made the “elderly” persons a lucrative target for tourism destination areas. Persons in “50 plus” age bracket are called “active affluents” or people with the money and the desire to travel extensively. Singles and Couples They take their vacations to fulfill their psychological, intellectual and physical needs by giving them the opportunity to rest, relax, escape the routine of pressures of daily living, enjoy the naturalness of life. Some people do not want to travel because of fears of travel. Fear of lying is quite common and accounts for many people who insist on driving to a vacation area instead of boarding a plane. Fear of the unknown keeps many people from leaving their own country or even their own city. •Fears There are several reasons why people travel. The basic travel motivations can be divided into four classes: the physical motivators, the cultural motivators, the interpersonal motivators,and the status and prestige motivators.
Several tourist motivations are listed in travel literature. some of these are: the need for escape or change, travel for health, sports, social contact, status and prestige, education, personal values,cultural experience, shopping bargain hunting, professional and business motives and search for natural beauty. A study of these motivations shows that they fit into Maslow's hierarchy of needs theory.
Travel is a means to satisfy a need and want. For the individual to be motivated to satisfy a need, an objective must be present. Part of the marketing task is to make people aware of their needs and present them with an objective, the purchase or attainment of which will help satisfy that need.
An individual learns of the alternative ways of satisfying his from personal experiences amd from information gained from the commercial or social environment. the alternatives are linked to the persons motives by a set of decision criteria-guidelines used by the individual to select among alternatives. Summary: Social needs
(love, belongingness,acceptance Safety needs
(protection against physical or mental danger) physiological needs
(food,drink,rest,shelter) Table 1. Maslow’s Needs and Motivations Listed in Travel Literature Need Motive Tourism Literature References Physiological Relaxation Escape
Relief of tension
Mental relaxation of tension Safety Security Health
Keep oneself active and healthy
for the future Social Love and Affection Family togetherness
Enhancement of kinship relationships
Facilitation of social interaction
Maintenance of personalities
Show one’s affection for family members
Maintain social contacts Self-esteem Achievements Status Convince oneself of one’s achievements
Show one’s importance to others
Professional/business Personal Fulfillment Self-actualization names: Reporter: Narlyn Martija
April Varona Subtopic: Cheney Lolo
Karl Basada Maslow’s concept of the need for esteem has two components:
• Esteem to others
Self-actualization can be regarded as the goal of leisure. Leisure is the state of being free from the urgent demands of the lower-level needs.
Need to know and understand is motivated by the desire for knowledge.
Need for aesthetics is shown in those who travel for environmental reasons – to view the scenery. Based on personality, travelers may be divided into psychocentrics and allocentrics. psychocentrics are generally non-adventurous and inhibited while allocentrics are adventurous, curious and have a strong desire for new experiences.
Based on travel purpose, travelers are divided into business travelers and pleasure/personal travelers. Business travelers are categorized into regular business travelers, business travelers attending meetings,conventions and congresses and incentive travelers.Pleasure travelers are classified as resort travelers, family pleasure travelers, the elderly and the singles and couples.
Travel constrains are the following: lack of money,lack of timing, lack of safety and security,physical disability, family commitments, lack of interest in travel and fears of travel. Explains that as humans meet basic needs, they seek to satisfy successively higher needs that occupy a set of hierarchy.