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تنوع الفطريات وبيئتها

أحياء ١
by

Athar Khalawee

on 17 September 2015

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Transcript of تنوع الفطريات وبيئتها

ﻲﻌﻤﺻﻷﺍ - "ﺍﺪﺑﺃ ﻞﻬﺠﻟﺍ ﻝﺫ ﻲﻓ ﻲﻘﺑ ،ﺔﻋﺎﺳ ﻢﻠﻌﺘﻟﺍ ﻝﺫ ﻞﻤﺘﺤﻳ ﻢﻟ ﻦﻣ"
"You are what you do, not what you say you will do"- unknown.
ﻑﺍﺪﻫﻷﺍ
ﺕﺎﻳﺮﻄﻔﻟﺍ ﻦﻣ ﺔﻴﺴﻴﺋﺭ ﺐﻌﺷ ﻊﺑﺭﺃ ﺩﺪﺤﺗ -
ﺕﺎﻳﺮﻄﻔﻟﺍ ﻦﻣ ﺔﺒﻌﺷ ﻞﻛ ﺰﻴﻤﺗ ﻲﺘﻟﺍ ﺺﺋﺎﺼﺨﻟﺍ ﺺﺨﻠﺗ -
ﺔﺒﻌﺷ ﻞﻛ ﻲﻓ ﺮﺛﺎﻜﺘﻟﺍ ﻁﺎﻤﻧﺃ ﻒﺼﺗ -
ﺕﺎﻨﺷﻷﺍ ﺺﺋﺎﺼﺧ ﺩﺪﺤﺗ -
ﺔﻳﺭﺬﺠﻟﺍ ﺕﺎﻳﺮﻄﻔﻟﺍ ﻲﻓ ﺕﺎﻗﻼﻌﻟﺍ ﺺﺋﺎﺼﺧ ﻒﺼﺗ -
ﺎﻫﺭﺎﻀﻣ ﺾﻌﺑﻭ ،ﺕﺎﻳﺮﻄﻔﻟﺍ ﺪﺋﺍﻮﻓ ﺾﻌﺑ ﺮﻛﺬﺗ -
ﺕﺎﻳﺮﻄﻔﻟﺍ ﻒﻴﻨﺼﺗ
ﺔﻠﻓﺎﻜﺘﻤﻟﺍ ﺕﺎﻳﺮﻄﻔﻟﺍ
ﺔﻄﻠﺘﺨﻤﻟا ﺔﺟﺰﻠﻟﺍ ﺕﺎﻳﺮﻄﻔﻟﺍ
( ﺔﻳﺪﻳﺮﺘﻜﻟﺍ )
ﺔﻴﻧﺍﺮﺘﻗﻹﺍ ﺕﺎﻳﺮﻄﻔﻟﺍ
Zygomycota
( ﺔﻴﺗﻮﺠﻳﺰﻟﺍ )
ﺔﻴﺴﻴﻜﻟﺍ ﺕﺎﻳﺮﻄﻔﻟﺍ
Ascomycota
(ﺔﻴﻗﺰﻟﺍ - ﺔﻴﻜﺳﻷﺍ )
ﺔﻴﻣﺎﻋﺪﻟﺍ ﺕﺎﻳﺮﻄﻔﻟﺍ
Basidomycota
( ﺔﻴﻧﺎﺠﻟﻮﺼﻟﺍ - ﺔﻳﺪﻳﺯﺎﺒﻟﺍ )
ﺔﺼﻗﺎﻨﻟﺍ ﺕﺎﻳﺮﻄﻔﻟﺍ
ﺎﻫﺮﺛﺎﻜﺗ ﻕﺮﻃﻭ ﺎﻬﺒﻴﻛﺮﺗ ﺐﺴﺣ
ﺔﺼﻗﺎﻨﻟﺍ ﺕﺎﻳﺮﻄﻔﻟﺍ
Chytridiomycota
ﺔﻄﻠﺘﺨﻤﻟﺍ ﺔﺟﺰﻠﻟﺍ ﺕﺎﻳﺮﻄﻔﻟﺍ
ﺔﻴﻧﺍﺮﺘﻗﻹﺍ ﺕﺎﻳﺮﻄﻔﻟﺍ
ﺔﻴﺴﻴﻜﻟﺍ ﺕﺎﻳﺮﻄﻔﻟﺍ
ﺔﻴﻣﺎﻋﺪﻟﺍ ﺕﺎﻳﺮﻄﻔﻟﺍ
ﻰﻠﻋ ﺕﺎﺗﺎﺒﻨﻟﺍﻭ ﺕﺎﻳﺮﻄﻔﻟﺍ ﺕﺮﺸﺘﻧﺍ
!؟ﺔﻨﺳ ﻥﻮﻴﻠﻣ ٤٥٠ ذﻨﻣ ﺽﺭﻷﺍ
ﻲﻠﻠﻋ
ﺎﻘﺑﺎﺳ ﺎﻬﻔﻴﻨﺼﺗ ﻢﺗ
!؟ﺕﺎﻴﻌﺋﻼﻄﻟﺍ ﻦﻤﺿ
ﺔﻴﻃﻮﺳ ﺎﻏﺍﻮﺑﺃ ﺞﺘﻨﺗ
ﺎﻬﻨﻴﺑ ﺔﻴﻟﺩﺎﺒﺘﻟﺍ ﺔﻴﺋﺍﺬﻐﻟﺍ ﺕﺎﻗﻼﻌﻟﺍ ﺓﺮﺜﻜﻟ
ﺀﺎﻤﻟﺍ ﻲﻓ ﺶﻴﻌﺗ ﺔﻳﺮﻄﻓ ﺕﺎﻳﺪﻳﺮﺘﻛ
ﺎﻫﺎﻳﻼﺧ ﻒﻠﺘﺘﻟ ﺕﺎﻴﺋﺎﻣﺮﺒﻟﺍ ﺪﻠﺟ ﻰﻠﻋ ﻯﺬﻐﺘﺗ
ﺲﻔﻨﺘﻟﺍ ﻊﻴﻄﺘﺴﺗ ﻼﻓ
ﺔﻴﻠﺨﻟﺍ ﺓﺪﻴﺣﻭ -
ﺀﺎﻤﻟﺍ ﻲﻓ ﺶﻴﻌﻳ ﺎﻬﺒﻠﻏﺃ -
ﻲﻠﻴﻔﻃ ﺮﺧﻷﺍﻭ ﻲﻣﺭ ﺎﻬﻀﻌﺑ -
ﺔﻴﻃﻮﺳ ﺎﻏﺍﻮﺑﺃ ﺞﺘﻨﺗ -
ﻉﻮﻧ 1300 + ﺎﻬﻨﻣ ﺪﺟﻮﻳ ـ
ﻲﻠﻠﻋ
ﺏﺮﻗﺃ ﺔﻄﻠﺘﺨﻤﻟﺍ ﺔﺟﺰﻠﻟﺍ ﺕﺎﻳﺮﻄﻔﻟﺍ ﺮﺒﺘﻌﺗ
!؟ﺕﺎﻴﻌﺋﻼﻄﻟﺍ ﻰﻟﺇ ﺎﻬﻨﻣ ﺕﺎﻳﺮﻄﻔﻟﺍ ﻰﻟﺇ
.ﺎﻤﻬﻨﻴﺑ ﺕﺎﻨﻴﺗﻭﺮﺒﻟﺍﻭ DNA ـﻟﺍ ﺐﻴﻛﺮﺗ ﻪﺑﺎﺸﺘﻟ -١
.ﺯﻮﻟﻮﻴﻠﻴﺴﻟﺍ ﻻ ﻦﻴﺘﻳﺎﻜﻟﺍ ﻦﻣ ﻥﻮﻜﻣ ﻱﻮﻠﺨﻟﺍ ﺎﻫﺭﺍﺪﺟ -٢
ﻝﺎﺜﻣ
ﺎﻳﻼﺨﻟﺍ ﺓﺪﻳﺪﻋ -
ﺔﺴﺑﺎﻴﻟﺍ ﻰﻠﻋ ﺎﻬﻤﻈﻌﻣ ﺶﻴﻌﻳ -
ﺕﺎﺗﺎﺒﻨﻟﺍ ﻊﻣ ﺔﻴﻠﻓﺎﻜﺗ ﺕﺎﻗﻼﻋ ﺎﻬﻨﻣ ﺪﻳﺪﻌﻟﺍ ﻥﻮﻜﻳ ـ
ﺎﻴﺴﻨﺟ ﻻﻭ ﺎﻴﺴﻨﺟ ﺮﺛﺎﻜﺘﺗ -
ﻉﻮﻧ 800 ﺎﻬﻨﻣ ﺪﺟﻮﻳ ـ
ﻦﻔﻌﻟﺍ ﺐﻴﻛﺮﺗ
:ﺔﻴﺋﺍﻮﻫ ﻕﺎﺳ
ﻡﺎﻌﻄﻟﺍ ﺢﻄﺳ ﻰﻠﻋ ﺮﺸﺘﻨﺗ ﺕﺎﻔﻴﻫ ـ
:ﺭﺬﺟ ﻪﺒﺷ
ﻪﺼﺘﻤﻳﻭ ﻡﺎﻌﻄﻟﺍ ﻕﺮﺘﺨﻳ -
ﻱﺮﻄﻔﻟﺍ ﻝﺰﻐﻟﺍ ﻦﻳﻮﻜﺗ -
ﺔﻤﺿﺎﻬﻟﺍ ﺕﺎﻤﻳﺰﻧﻷﺍ ﻦﻳﻮﻛ -
Rhizopus stolonifer
ﺰﺒﺨﻟﺍ ﻦﻔﻋ ﺮﻄﻓ
:ﻝﺎﺜﻣ
ﺰﺒﺨﻟﺍ ﻦﻔﻋ ﺮﻄﻓ ﺓﺎﻴﺣ ﺓﺭﻭﺩ
:ﻲﺴﻨﺟ
ﺔﻴﺠﻴﺸﻣ ﺔﻴﻠﺧ ﻥﻮﻜﺗ
:ﻲﺴﻨﺟ ﻻ
ﻍﺍﻮﺑﻷﺍ
،ﺎﻳﻼﺨﻟﺍ ﺓﺪﻳﺪﻋ ﺎﻬﻤﻈﻌﻣ -
ﺔﻴﻠﺨﻟﺍ ﺓﺪﻴﺣﻭ ﺎﻬﻨﻣ ﻞﻴﻠﻘﻟﺍﻭ
ﺔﻴﺌﻴﺒﻟﺍ ﺎﻬﻨﻃﺍﻮﻣ ﻲﻓ ﻉﻮﻨﺘﺗ -
ﺔﻗﻼﻌﻟﺍ ﺔﻴﻠﻓﺎﻜﺗ ﻭﺃ ﺔﻴﻠﻔﻄﺗ ،ﺔﻴﻣﺭ -
ﺎﻴﺴﻨﺟ ﻻﻭ ﺎﻴﺴﻨﺟ ﺮﺛﺎﻜﺘﺗ -
ﻉﻮﻧ ٦٠.٠٠٠ + ﺎﻬﻨﻣ ﺪﺟﻮﻳ -
ﻝﺎﺜﻣ
ﺓﺮﻴﻤﺨﻟﺍ ﺮﻄﻓ
ﻡﻮﻴﻠﻴﺴﻨﺒﻟﺍ ﺮﻄﻓ
ﺍﺰﻳﺰﺒﻟﺍ ﺮﻄﻓ
:ﻲﺴﻨﺠﻟﺍ ﺮﺛﺎﻜﺘﻟﺍ -٢
ﺔﻴﺴﻴﻜﻟﺍ ﻍﺍﻮﺑﻷﺍ
:ﻲﺴﻨﺟﻼﻟﺍ ﺮﺛﺎﻜﺘﻟﺍ -١
ﺔﻳﺪﻴﻧﻮﻜﻟﺍ ﻍﺍﻮﺑﻷﺍ
ﺍﺰﻳﺰﺒﻟﺍ ﺮﻄﻓ ﺓﺎﻴﺣ ﺓﺭﻭﺩ
ﺎﻳﺪﻴﻧﻮﻜﻟﺍ ﻞﻣﺎﺣ ﻦﻴﺑ ﻕﺮﻔﻟﺎﻣ
!؟ﻍﺍﻮﺑﻷﺍ ﻞﻣﺎﺣﻭ
:ﻍﺍﻮﺑﻷﺍ ﻞﻣﺎﺣ
ﻍﺍﻮﺑﻷﺍ ﺎﻬﻠﺧﺍﺪﺑ ﺔﻴﻏﻮﺒﻟﺍ
ﻂﻓﺍﻮﺤﻟﺍ ﻪﺘﻳﺎﻬﻧ ﻲﻓ ﻞﻤﺤﻳ
:ﺎﻳﺪﻴﻧﻮﻜﻟﺍ ﻞﻣﺎﺣ
ﺔﻳﺪﻴﻧﻮﻜﻟﺍ ﻍﺍﻮﺑﻷﺍ ﻪﺘﻳﺎﻬﻧ ﻲﻓ ﻞﻤﺤﻳ
(ﻪﻓﻮﺸﻜﻣ) ﻪﻠﺧﺍﺪﺑ ﻻ
(ﻊﻘﻔﻟﺍ) ﺓﺄﻤﻜﻟﺍ
ﺎﻳﻼﺨﻟﺍ ﺓﺪﻳﺪﻋ ﺎﻬﻤﻈﻌﻣ -
ﻪﺴﺑﺎﻴﻟﺍ ﻰﻠﻋ ﺎﻬﺒﻠﻏﺃ ﺶﻴﻌﻳ -
ﺔﻴﻠﻓﺎﻜﺗ ﻭﺃ ﺔﻴﻠﻔﻄﺗ ،ﺔﻴﻣﺭ -
ﻯﺮﺧﺃ ﺕﺎﻗﻮﻠﺨﻣ ﻊﻣ ﺔﻗﻼﻌﻟﺍ
ﻉﻮﻧ ٢٥.٠٠٠ ﺎﻬﺑ ﺪﺟﻮﻳ -
ﺔﻋﺍﻮﻧﺄﺑ ﺏﺍﺮﻐﻟﺍ ﺶﻋ ﺮﻄﻓ
ﻝﺎﺜﻣ
ﺶﻋ ﺮﻄﻓ
ﺭﻮﻔﺼﻌﻟﺍ
ﻲﻠﻠﻋ
ﺔﻴﻣﺎﻋﺪﻟﺍ ﺕﺎﻳﺮﻄﻔﻟﺍ ﺪﻌﺗ
!؟ﺔﻴﺴﻴﺋﺮﻟﺍ ﺐﺸﺨﻟﺍ ﺕﻼﻠﺤﻣ ﻦﻣ
ﻦﻴﻨﺠﻠﻟﺎﻛ ﺐﺸﺨﻟﺍ ﻲﻓ ﺓﺪﻘﻌﻣ ﺕﺍﺮﻤﻠﺒﻣ ﻢﻴﻄﺤﺘﻟ ﺕﺎﻤﻳﺰﻧﺃ ﺞﺘﻨﺗ ﺎﻬﻧﻷ
ﺏﺍﺮﻐﻟﺍ ﺶﻋ ﺮﻄﻓ ﺓﺎﻴﺣ ﺓﺭﻭﺩ
ﻉﻮﻨﺘﻟﺍ ﺓﺪﻳﺪﺷ -
ﺔﻳﺪﻴﻧﻮﻜﻟﺍ ﻢﻴﺛﺍﺮﺠﻟﺎﺑ ﺎﻴﺴﻨﺟ ﻻ ﺮﺛﺎﻜﺘﺗ -
ﻪﻠﻔﻄﺘﻣ ﺎﻬﻀﻌﺑﻭ ﺔﻴﻣﺭ ﺎﻬﻤﻈﻌﻣ -
ﺕﺎﺒﻨﻟﺍﻭ ﻥﺍﻮﻴﺤﻟﺍﻭ ﻥﺎﺴﻧﻹﺍ ﻰﻠﻋ
ﻉﻮﻧ ٢٥،٠٠٠ ﺎﻬﻨﻣ ﺪﺟﻮﻳ -
ﻢﻳﺭﺍﺯﻮﻴﻓ ﺮﻄﻓ
:ﻝﺎﺜﻣ

ﻲﻠﻠﻋ
!؟ﺔﺼﻗﺎﻨﻟﺎﺑ ﺖﻴﻤﺳ
ﺔﻳﺭﺬﺠﻟﺍ ﺕﺎﻳﺮﻄﻔﻟﺍ
ﺕﺎﻨﺷﻷﺍ
ﻲﺋﻮﻀﻟﺍ ﺀﺎﻨﺒﻟﺍ ﺔﻴﻠﻤﻌﺑ ﻡﻮﻘﻳ ﻚﻳﺮﺷ ﻱﺃ ﻭﺃ ﺐﻟﺎﺤﻄﻟﺍﻭ ﺕﺎﻳﺮﻄﻔﻟﺍ ﻦﻴﺑ ﺔﻴﻠﻓﺎﻜﺗ ﺔﻗﻼﻋ
.ﺔﻴﻣﺎﻋﺩ ﻭﺃ ﺔﻴﺴﻴﻛ ﺕﺎﻳﺮﻄﻓ :ﻥﻮﻜﺗ ﺪﻗ -
،ﺔﻳﺎﻤﺤﻟﺍ ﺎﻬﻟ ﺮﻓﻮﺗﻭ ﺔﺑﺮﺘﻟﺍ ﻦﻣ ﺡﻼﻣﻷﺍﻭ ﺀﺎﻤﻟﺍ ﺹﺎﺼﺘﻣﺈﺑ ﺮﻄﻔﻟﺍ ﻡﻮﻘﻳ -
.ﻲﺋﻮﻀﻟﺍ ﺀﺎﻨﺒﻟﺍ ﺔﻴﻠﻤﻌﺑ ﻡﻮﻘﺗ ﺔﻗﺭﺰﻤﻟﺍ ﺀﺍﺮﻀﺨﻟﺍ ﺎﻳﺮﻴﺘﻜﺒﻟﺍ ﺎﻣﺃ
.ﻱﻮﻴﺣ ﺮﺷﺆﻣ ﺕﺎﻨﺷﻷﺍ ﺮﺒﻌﺗ -
ﺎﻬﺼﺋﺎﺼﺧ
ﺕﺎﺗﺎﺒﻨﻟﺍ ﺾﻌﺑ ﺭﻭﺬﺟﻭ ﺕﺎﻳﺮﻄﻔﻟﺍ ﻦﻴﺑ ﺔﻴﻠﻓﺎﻜﺗ ﺔﻗﻼﻋ
ﺕﺎﻳﺮﻄﻔﻟﺍ ﻊﻣ ﺔﻴﻠﻓﺎﻜﺗ ﺕﺎﻗﻼﻋ ﻢﻴﻘﺗ ﻲﺘﻟﺍ ﺕﺎﺗﺎﺒﻨﻟﺍ -١
.ﺎﻫﺮﻴﻏ ﻦﻣ ﻁﺎﺸﻧﻭ ﻪﺤﺻ ﺮﺜﻛﺃ ﺢﺒﺼﺗ
.ﺕﺎﺒﻨﻠﻟ ﻪﻔﻠﺘﺨﻤﻟﺍ ﻥﺩﺎﻌﻤﻟﺍ ﺕﺎﻳﺮﻄﻔﻟﺍ ﺺﺘﻤﺗ -٢
.ﺔﻴﻨﻴﻣﻷﺍ ﺽﺎﻤﺣﻷﺍﻭ ﺕﺍﺭﺪﻴﻫﻮﺑﺮﻜﻟﺎﺑ ﺔﻳﺭﺬﺠﻟﺍ ﺕﺎﻳﺮﻄﻔﻟﺍ ﺕﺎﺗﺎﺒﻨﻟﺍ ﺩﻭﺰﺗ -٣
.ﺕﺎﺒﻨﻟﺍ ﺭﻭﺬﺟ ﺔﺣﺎﺴﻣ ﻲﻓ ﺓﺩﺎﻳﺯ ﺮﻄﻔﻠﻟ ﺔﻳﺮﻄﻔﻟﺍ ﻁﻮﻴﺨﻟﺍ ﺢﻴﺘﺗ -٤
ﺔﻴﻠﻓﺎﻜﺘﻟﺍ ﺕﺎﻗﻼﻌﻟﺍ ﻩﺬﻫ ﺪﻳﺰﺗ ﺚﻴﺣ ﺔﻴﻌﻴﺒﻄﻟﺍ ﺕﺎﺌﻴﺒﻠﻟ ﺔﻤﻬﻣ -٥
.ﺔﻟﻭﺍﺮﻔﻟﺍﻭ ﻢﻃﺎﻤﻄﻟﺍﻭ ﺎﻃﺎﻄﺒﻟﺍﻭ ﺭﺰﺠﻟﺍﻭ ﺓﺭﺬﻟﺍ ﻦﻣ ﻞﻜﻟ ﻲﻋﺍﺭﺰﻟﺍ ﻝﻮﺼﺤﻤﻟﺍ ﻦﻣ
ﺎﻫﺩﻭﺰﺘﻟ ﻚﻳﺮﺷ ﻥﻭﺩ ﺶﻴﻌﻟﺍ ﻊﻴﻄﺘﺴﺗ ﻻ ﺕﺎﺗﺎﺒﻨﻟﺍ ﺾﻌﺑ -٦
.ﺪﻴﻛﺭﻭﻷﺎﻛ ﺎﻫﺭﻭﺬﺑ ﺖﺒﻨﺗ ﻼﻓ ﺕﺍﺭﺪﻴﻫﻮﺑﺮﻜﻟﺎﺑ
ﺱﻮﺘﺒﻴﻟﺎﻛﻮﻳ ﺮﺠﺷ ﻊﻣ
ﺎﻣﺮﻳﺩﻭﺮﻴﻠﻜﺳ ﺮﻄﻓ ﺔﻗﻼﻋ
ﻝﺎﺜﻣ
Mycorrhiza
Lichens
:ﺔﻴﻠﻓﺎﻜﺘﻟﺍ ﺔﻗﻼﻌﻟﺍ ﺪﺋﺍﻮﻓ
ﻥﺎﺴﻧﻹﺍﻭ ﺕﺎﻳﺮﻄﻔﻟﺍ
ﺀﺎﻴﻤﻴﻜﻟﺍ ﻝﺎﺠﻤﺑ ﺕﺎﻳﺮﻄﻔﻟﺍ
ﺔﻳﻮﻴﺤﻟﺍ ﺔﺠﻟﺎﻌﻤﻟﺍ
ﻡﺎﻌﻄﻟﺍ
:ﺕﺎﻳﺮﻄﻔﻟﺍ ﺪﺋﺍﻮﻓ
:ﺕﺎﻳﺮﻄﻔﻟﺍ ﺭﺎﻀﻣ
ﻥﺎﺴﻧﻹﺍ
ﻥﺍﻮﻴﺤﻟﺍ
ﺕﺎﺒﻨﻟﺍ
ﺐﻄﻟﺍ
penicillium notatum ﻦﻴﻠﺴﻨﺒﻟﺍ
SIR ALEXANDER FLEMING DISCOVERS PENICILLIN – SEPT. 28, 1928
Claviceps purpurea ﺮﻄﻓ
ﻂﻐﻀﻟﺍ ﻉﺎﻔﺗﺭﺍ ﺔﺠﻟﺎﻌﻤﻟ -
ﺩﺎﺤﻟﺍ ﻒﻳﺰﻨﻟﺍ ﻰﻠﻋ ﻩﺮﻄﻴﺴﻟﺍ -
ﻲﻔﺼﻨﻟﺍ ﻉﺍﺪﺼﻟﺍ -
ﺕﻼﻀﻋ ﺽﺎﺒﻘﻧﺍ -
ﺓﺩﻻﻮﻟﺍ ﺪﻨﻋ ﻢﺣﺮﻟﺍ
Tolypocladium inflatum ﺮﻄﻓ
ﺔﻋﻭﺭﺰﻤﻟﺍ ﺀﺎﻀﻋﻸﻟ ﻢﺴﺠﻟﺍ ﺾﻓﺭ ﺔﻟﺎﺣ ﺔﺠﻟﺎﻌﻣ
ﺓﺮﻄﺨﻟﺍ ﺕﺎﺛﻮﻠﻤﻟﺍ ﻦﻣ ﺺﻠﺨﺘﻠﻟ ﺾﻴﺑﻷﺍ ﻦﻔﻌﻟﺍ ﺮﻄﻓ
ﺔﺛﻮﻠﻤﻟﺍ ﺔﻳﻮﻀﻌﻟﺍ ﺩﺍﻮﻤﻟﺍ ﻞﻴﻠﺤﺘﺑ ﻡﻮﻘﺘﻟ ﺔﺑﺮﺘﻟﺍ ﻭﺃ ﺀﺎﻤﻟﺎﺑ ﺕﺎﻳﺮﻄﻔﻟﺍ ﻉﺍﻮﻧﺃ ﻂﻠﺧ
ﺓﺭﺎﺿ ﺮﻴﻏ ﻯﺮﺧﺃ ﺩﺍﻮﻣ ﻰﻟﺇ ﻰﻟﺇ ﺎﻬﻠﻳﻮﺤﺗﻭ
ﺕﺎﻘﻴﺒﻄﺘﻟﺍ ﻞﺣﻭ
ﻢﺳﺮﻟﺍ
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