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Oregon Ducks Running Backs

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Ryan Mahan

on 8 December 2014

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Transcript of Oregon Ducks Running Backs

Oregon Ducks Running Backs
Oregon Running Backs
Compression of deep vein increases blood flow velocity back toward heart
NormaTec Sequential Pulse causes further increases in blood flow velocity compared to single chamber compression devices
Sequential compression causes blood to travel back toward the heart as a pressure wave
Hydration
Active recovery important for metabolite clearance which can help to accelerate gains from training
Often difficult and energy expensive to perform a complete active recovery following a hard training day
IPC allows for proper recovery independent of motivation or energy constraints
Intermittent Pneumatic Compression (IPC) device acts to improve post-workout recovery by simulating the musculoskeletal pump
Nutrition and Supplementation
Strength, Power & Conditioning
Replenish Glycogen
Sodium
Keys To Success
Strength & Agility Training
Recovery Techniques
Nutrition & Supplementation
NormaTec Intermittent Pneumatic Compression
Hydration
Are athletes in general typically hydrated? NO.
Are UO running backs typically hydrated? YES
NormaTec IPC Recovery Device
In 2009, a study evaluating pre-practice hydration status of 263 National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) Division I athletes showed that 53% were hypo-hydrated.
Volpe et al. Estimation of pre-practice hydration status of NCCA Division I athletes. J Athl Train. 2009;44:624-9
Establish foundation: stability, flexibility posture, balance, mobility-speed school
Olympic weight lifting-clean, snatch
Strength movements-bench, squat
High-powered plyometrics
Power: strength, agility and speed
The volume of sweat lost is particularly relevant to athletes and between individuals has a wide variation.
Maximal sweating rates can vary from 1.5 L/hr to as much as 3 L/hr
Sweat is not only water but also contains electrolytes, which are just as important.
Electrolytes are essential for conduction of electrical energy between and within cells as well as maintaining each cellular membranes electrical integrity.
TFPI - Inhibits formation of clotting factor Xa
NO - Powerful vasodilator via inhibition of smooth muscle cell contraction
tPA - Activates plasmin, our body's main enzyme responsible for fibrin clot breakdown
Prostacyclin - Increases red blood cell deformity allowing passage through vasculature with high resistance. Also acts as a strong vasodilator through smooth muscle cell inhibition
Speed School
Sweat
Nutrition for Sports, Dr. Arnie Baker, 2nd edition, Sweat Mineral Losses, pg. 22
The most crucial electrolyte when it comes to hydration.
Essential for transport of water in the body. The body cannot excrete and move free water, instead it moves with sodium.
Normal blood levels are maintained between 135-145 mmol/L
Potassium
Objective: re-learn how to run
Proper biomechanics, increased efficiency
All players must participate
Potassium helps to maintain electrical integrity of the cell membrane and is important in nerve conduction.
Helps transport glucose into the cell
Blood levels are regulated between 4.5-5.5 mmol/l
Low blood potassium 'Hypokalaemia' is usually due to diarrhea, fasting and taking certain diuretics.
In sports hypokalaemia is rare.
Calcium
Most abundant mineral in the body!
Calcium is a key contributor in muscle contraction and relaxation, transmission of nerve impulses, hormonal secretion, and blood coagulation.
The human body has vast supplies stored in bones, which are tapped into when needed.
Calcium deficiency is rare.
RDA: 1000-1200 mg/day
Magnesium
Necessary in every cell for enzyme reactions as well as muscle contraction and energy production
Prolonged exercise and training with poor diet can lead to depletion, though deficiency is rare acutely
Deficiency can lead to dizziness, fatigue and depression
Normal range 1.5-2.5 mg/dL
RDA: 400-430 mg/day*
Sodium
Total Sodium lost through sweat is a question of volume and concentration
Sodium
Will replacing Sodium levels increase my performance?
A study was conducted with 14 cyclists performing a 15 minute time trial. The cyclists were randomized to a sodium-free drink or a pre-exercise 164 mmol/L (3700 mg/l) sodium drink. Each cyclist undertook a 45-minute session in a climate chamber at 70% maximal workload followed by a 15 min performance trial. The cyclists who were pre-loaded with sodium showed a significant improvement of around 7.8% performance gain compared to those that ingest the sodium-free drink.
More evidence for sodium pre-loading comes from a New Zealand study comparing the effect of a high and low sodium drink (164 vs 20 mmol/L) on endurance-trained athletes running to exhaustion. The sodium supplementation group showed improved hydration, lower heart rates and perceived exertion and greater times to exhaustion.
Luetkemeier et al. Dietary sodium and plasma volume levels with exercise. Sports Med. 1997;23:279-86
Sims et al. Sodium Loading Aids Fluid Balance and Reduces Physiological Strain of Trained Men Exercising in the Heat. Med. Sci. Sports Exerc., Vol. 39, No. 1, pp. 123–130, 2007
Sodium
Not everyone agrees with sodium supplementation and performance gains
One of the first studies to look at sodium supplementation in elite sport was during the 2001 South Africa Ironman race where 145 volunteers were randomized to either a placebo or sodium supplementation with a 244 mg tablet. No difference in finishing time, serum sodium concentration before and after the race, or weight before and during the race.
Hew-Butler et al. Sodium supplementation is not required to maintain serum sodium concentrations during an Ironman triathlon. Br J Sports Med 2006;40:255–259
Criticisms of the Study
No record on what each athlete drank or ate during the race
The supplementation group only consumed an extra 3.6 mg of Na+ during the race which equated to less than 300 mg/hr, which is less than published net sodium loss per hour range of 600-6000 mg/hr
This supplementation is considered to be too low to have a meaningful effect on performance
Sodium
Cramping
Exercise associated muscle cramps may be the result of fluid and electrolyte depletion, which results in the sensitization of select nerve terminals. The resulting contracture of the interstitial space increase the mechanical pressure on select motor nerve endings and results in EAMC.
An area of performance that has shown to benefit from sodium supplementation is cramping. Sodium imbalance appears to be important as shown by published work in cramp-prone professional players in the USA. This group was compared to players who had never cramped over a 2-day training camp. The cramp-prone players had much higher net sodium losses (5.1 +/- 16.2 vs 25.3 +/- 10.0 mmol/L).
Have you ever seen an Oregon Running Back Cramp?
Why Not?
Low blood Na+ in sports is most likely due to the dilutional effects of drinking water or low concentration sports drinks in excess of sweat and urine Na+ loss.
This condition is known as Exercise Associated Hyponatremia
With Hyponatremia athletes can experience weakness, nausea, muscle fatigue and cramping. If Na+ levels drop even further agitation, seizures, and occasianally death may occur.
Stofan et al. Sweat and sodium losses in NCAA football players: a precursor to heat cramps? Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab. 2005;15:641-52
Horswill et al. Sodium balance during U. S. football training in the heat: cramp-prone vs. reference players. Int J Sports Med. 2009; 30:789-94
Sweat Testing
First
Second
Third
Sweat Inducer
Macroduct Sweat Collector
Sweat Check Analyzer
Analysis of Sweat Test
After taking the sweat test the director of nutrition at the university determines what concentration tablet of H2Pro Hydrate to use with a variety of liquids
Comparison of blood lactate clearance between active recovery and an IPC device
Use of IPC caused a similar lactate clearance to an active recovery
Oregon running backs (and other players) combine the two, NormaTec is used after a dynamic cool down to further increase metabolite clearance
Importance of Plyometrics
Purpose: neuromuscular training via myotatic reflex
Efficiency & energy costs
Progressive Overload--3 types (Radcliffe and Farentinos)
Principle of Specificity
Periodization
http://www.normatecrecovery.com/science.shtml
http://www.arjohuntleigh.com/with-people-in-mind/
Hanson et al., 2013
Myotatic (Stretch Reflex)
Protectice mechanism
Many components
muscle-length regulation
http://joemilleryoga.com/stretching-make-flexible/
Anthropometric Measurements
Customized Recovery Shakes
Nutrition 'Bars'
Timing
Goal: replenish glycogen and promote protein synthesis ASAP
Muscle glycogen is broken down to glucose and used to generate energy
glycogen stores depleted during exercise
consuming carbs after exercise allows the body to replenish glycogen stores
blood glucose levels increases from the consumption and breakdown of glycogen from in carbohydrates
the pancreas releases insulin in response to the rises in blood glucose
insulin transports the blood glucose to the muscles where it is converted and stored as glycogen through glycogenesis
Myotatic Reflex (cont.)
2 types of intrafusal muscle fibers
2 responses
2 afferent 3 efferent Neurons
Alpha-gamma coactivation
Golgi Tendon Organ
Embedded in tendons
Group 1b Nerve fibers
Ability to control contractions
Autogenic inhibition reflex
Progressive Overload
Resistive overload
Temporal Overload
Spatial Overload
Frequency: 2-3x/wk
Well-rested
Velocity-focused
Principle of Specificity
Focusing on a specific sport
Tailored exercises
General--sedentary vs. specific--elite
Periodization
Preparation
Building a base
Specifying fitness
Tapering
Peaking
Rest & recovery
Anthropometric Measurements
When incoming football players enter the UO football program they are given a 'Frame Score'
The 'Frame Score' uses Anthropometric measurements to determine the optimal lean body mass a player can perform their best at.
To determine the optimal body mass the 'Frame Score' is compared to current/former players who have/had similar statures and physiques.
BodPod testing, Skin Fold testing and Length/Girth measurements are taken once every three months.
Customized Recovery Shakes
Once the Frame Score is assessed the registered dieticians prescribe either a customized recovery shake or a generic shake like Muscle Milk or a Gatorade recovery shake, each shake with prescribed amounts of Macro-nutrients (Protein, Carbohydrates, fats).
The custom shakes are prescribed to the players that either need to gain weight or maintain (majority of weight lost at fall camp).
The ratio of Macro Nutrients prescribed in each shake is correlated with the Frame Score previously taken.
Muscle Milk Collegiate
Gatorade Recover
ITS ALL ABOUT TIMING!
Hatfield-Dowlin Complex Kitchen
Casanova Center Nutrition 'Bar'
Works Cited
Hydration Testing
Used by many professional athletes
Can be used when an active cool down is otherwise difficult
ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK10809
musom.marshall.edu/anatomy/grosshom/musclesensory.html
michaeldmann.net/mannll.html
Radcliffe, James Christopher, and Robert C. Farentinos. High-Powered Plyometrics. Human Kinetics, 1999. Print.
Ebben, William P. and Douglas O. Blackard. "Complex Training with Combined Explosive Weight Training and Plyometric Exercises." Sport Medicine & Science Council of Saskatchewan (1997). Print.
Aragon, Alan Albert. Schoenfeld, Brad Jon. Nutrient Timing Revisited: Is there a post exercise window?. Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition. 2013. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3577439/.
Jensen, Jorgen. Rustad, Per Inge. Kolnes, Anders Jensen. Lai, Yu-Chiang. "The Role of Skeletal Muscle Glycogen Breakdown for Regulation of Insulin Sensitivity by Exercise". Frontiers in Physiology. 2012. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3248697/.
Kumar V. Atherton P. Smith K. Rennie MJ. "Human Muscle Protein Synthesis and Breakdown During and After Exercise. Journal of Applied Physiology. 2009.
www.checkdiabetes.org/glycogenesis
Applications of Plyometrics
Protein Synthesis
Prostacyclin - Increase in capillary blood flow
Complex Training:
Weight Training + Plyometrics
Ex: Squatting + Jumping
very little reasoning/support
Power development
Somewhat convenient
(Ebben and Blackard)
The Oregon sports nutrition department tests hydration of players twice a week during season and once a week during fall camp.
A digital urine specific gravity refractometer measures the density (concentration) of the sample.
NCAA rules: calories from protein
can only be 30% of total calories
Protein Synthesis
Insulin growth factor stimulates protein kinase B leading to mTOR
mTOR-mammalian target of rapamycin-activates mRNA for translation of aminos


www.efdeportes.com/efd131/leucine-stimulates-mtor-and-muscle-protein-sythesis.htm
Why H2Pro Hydrate?
The nutrition department uses H2Pro Hydrate tablets as their main source of electrolyte supplementation.
H2Pro Hydrate is a Hypotonic solution which aids in the quality of absorption.
The tablets come in four different concentrations 250, 500, 1000, and 1500
muscle protein is broken down during exercise
after exercise muscle protein synthesis must occur to restore balance between breakdown and synthesis
it is important to have that rise in blood glucose to release insulin
insulin also helps to stimulate protein synthesis
insulin stimulates the initiation and translation processes that lead to the building of amino acids into proteins
Rowlands et al. Unilateral fluid absorption and effects on peak power after ingestion of commercially available hypotonic, isotonic, and hypertonic sports drinks.Int J Sport Nutr. Exerc. Metab. 2011;21:480-91
American College of Sports Medicine position stand. Exercise and fluid replacement. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 1996 Jan;28(1):i-vii.
Stofan et al. Sweat and sodium losses in NCAA football players: a precursor to heat cramps? Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab. 2005;15:641-52
Horswill et al. Sodium balance during U. S. football training in the heat: cramp-prone vs. reference players. Int J Sports Med. 2009; 30:789-94
Hew-Butler et al. Sodium supplementation is not required to maintain serum sodium concentrations during an Ironman triathlon. Br J Sports Med 2006;40:255–259
Merson et al. Rehydration with drinks differing in sodium concentration and recovery from moderate exercise-induced hypohydration in man. Eur J Appl Physiol. 2008;103:585-94
Sims et al. Sodium Loading Aids Fluid Balance and Reduces Physiological Strain of Trained Men Exercising in the Heat. Med. Sci. Sports Exerc., Vol. 39, No. 1, pp. 123–130, 2007
Godek et al. Sweat rates, sweat sodium concentrations, and sodium losses in 3 groups of professional football players. J Athl Train. 2010;45:364-71
Maughan et al.Water balance and salt losses in competitive football. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab. 2007; 17:583-94
Brown, Erin C, Robert A DiSilvestro, Ari Babaknia, and Steven T Devor. "Soy Versus Whey Protein Bars: Effects on Exercise Training Impact on Lean Body Mass and Antioxidant Status." Nutr J, 3 (2004): 22
Hanson E, Stetter K, Li R, Thomas A (2013) An Intermittent Pneumatic Compression Device Reduces Blood Lactate Concentrations More Effectively Than Passive Recovery after Wingate Testing. J Athl Enhancement 2:3. doi:10.4172/2324-9080.1000115
Hirsch, Mark A, Tonya Toole, Charles G Maitland, and Robert A Rider. "The Effects of Balance Training and High-intensity Resistance Training on Persons with Idiopathic Parkinson's Disease." Arch Phys Med Rehabil, 84.8 (2003): 1109-1117.
ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK10809
musom.marshall.edu/anatomy/grosshom/musclesensory.html
michaelmann.net/mannll.html
Radcliffe, James Christopher, and Robert C. Farentinos. High-Powered Plyometrics. Human Kinetics, 1999. Print.
Ebben, William P. and Douglas O. Blackard. "Complex Training with Combined Explosive Weight Training and Plyometric Exercises." Sport Medicine & Science Council of Saskatchewan (1997). Print.
Byron Marshall
Thomas Tyner
Royce Freeman
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