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Geology

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by

Bella Klever

on 19 February 2013

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Transcript of Geology

Geology Volcanoes, fossils and rocks What is geology? What do geologists do? What are rocks? Igneous Rocks What are volcanoes? Sedimentary Rocks Three stages of a volcano Geology is the study and science of the Earth.
It is the study of what makes up the earth. This includes layers of the Earth, rocks and how they are formed, fossils and fossilization, volcanoes and their eruption process. Geologists study the Earths surface and interior, or just the the earth. Mostly though what they
study is the origin, history, and structure of Earth and the processes that shape it over time. The definition of a rock is a solid mineral material. Rocks form part of the earths surface and other planets surfaces. Rocks form from pieces of other rocks or are formed by minerals being precipitated from water. These rocks are called "Fire Rocks."
They are formed when magma, a melted rock, deep within the earth becomes trapped in small pockets. Slowly underground these pockets of rock cool and the melted magma rock becomes igneous rocks. When volcanoes erupt, is when igneous rocks are also formed, causing the magma to rise above the earths surface. However, when this occurs, its called a volcano eruption. So, when magma rises above the earths surface it is called lava. Igneous rocks are formed as the lava cools above ground. A volcano is a mountain that opens downward into a pool of molten rock below the surface of the earth, is basically what a volcano is. They are formed by material from the mantle, which is being forced through the opening in the earths crust. An erupting volcano can trigger tsunamis, flash floods, earthquakes, mudflows and rockfalls. Volcanoes have been categorized into three groups:
-Active
-Dormant
-Extinct By: Bella Klever The Mauna Loa How are rocks formed? What are fossils? Metamorphic Rocks This is the largest volcano in the world. Located in Hawaii. At a huge 17,000 m (56,00 feet) when measured to the base from the top. Trace and body fossils Rocks are created in a strange way. Over time (thousands or millions of years), wind and water beat away at pieces of earth, breaking it down. The little bits of earth are then pushed downstream into the water where they settle at rivers, lakes and oceans. After a while, more and more bits of earth wash downstream and pile up on the other pieces of earth. These layers keep forming and being pressed down, until the bottom layers turn into rock over time. Even when its measured from the sea floor, it's height is more than 9000 m. It's so heavy that the weight from it has bent the oceanic crust under the volcano. Mauna Loa has erupted 33 times since 1843. It's last eruption was in 1984 and since 2004, it is showing signs of a possible awakening. This is the earth's most active volcano. Active An active volcano is one that has recently erupted and may erupt again soon. Dormant A dormant volcano is one that has not erupted for 2000 years or more. Extinct An extinct volcano is pretty obvious. It is one that will never erupt again. Sources: Fossils are preserved remains of animals or plants. For something to be considered a fossil, it has to be over 10,000 years old. There are two main types of fossils: -Body fossils
-Trace fossils Body fossils are the preserved remains of a plant or animal's body. Trace fossils are remains of the activity of an animal, such as preserved footprints, trackways, nests and fossilized egg shells. Rocks formed by recrystallizing the minerals in a rock under high pressures or temperatures. Body fossil: Trace fossil: Mount Vesuvius
-Active
-Erupted over 3o times (known)
-Southern Italy
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