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Transcript of Media Control
Government regulation, Censorship, Media control, Media Bias, Government regulation, Censorship, Media control, Media Bias, Government regulation, Censorship, Media control, Media Bias, Government regulation, Censorship, Media control, Media Bias, Government regulation, Censorship, Media control, Media Bias, Government regulation, Censorship, Media control, Media Bias, Government regulation, Censorship, Media control, Media Bias,
media diversity & dissent
local & independent sources
Freedom of the press by signing petitions
Think critically about your news sources and what they are reporting
A Change of Pace
Bias in the News
WHAT YOU CAN DO IN BELLINGHAM:
Support our low power FM radio stations:
KMRE 102.3 FM
Online sources (blogs)
Top International Media Corporations 2013
1) Comcast/NBC Universal
2) Google Inc.
3) The Walt Disney Company
4) News Corp. Ltd
5) Time Warner Inc.
6) Viacom Inc.
2013 Reporters Without Borders World Press Freedom Index: #32
Frugal Dad (2011, November 22)
Institute for Media and Comm
People's Republic of China (PRC)
- Party run 1949-1978;
- Increasing freedom until Tiananmen Square Protests (1989)
- Majorly regulated by CCP
- Harsh on journalists
- 173 of 178 in RWB Freedom of Press Index
- No political commentary: Less spin when China isn't involved
- Liu Xiaobo imprisoned since 2008
- Common restrictions:
- High medical fees
- Disparity of wealth
- Collapse of school buildings in the 2008 Sichuan earthquake
IEP: South Korea
Government -> Corporate Control of Media (+ Government paying Corporations)
Loosening of PRI led to more competitors (BBC, 2013)
Televison: Corporate takeover
Grupo Televisa and TV Azteca (Huerta- Wong & Gomez, 2013)
Al Jazeera Arabic
Al Jazeera English
Who controls our media?
A Brief History of ZA (cont.)
1948-National Party gains power and Apartheid established (BBC News Africa, 2013).
Separated races into Whites, Blacks, and Colored
Led to relocation based on Race (Apartheid in South Africa, n.d.).
National Party controlled all media
Both headquartered in Doha, Qatar
A Brief History of ZA (cont.)
The African National Congress (ANC) began to fight against Apartheid with the help of Nelson Mandela
1991 Apartheid laws abolished
ZA went began transition into democracy
1994-ANC wins election and Nelson Mandela becomes president
2009-ANC wins election and puts Jacob Zuma in power
Owned by the Al Jazeera Media Network
Sheikh Hamad bin Thamer Al Thani
Media Control in ZA
Two main news sources in ZA are South African Broadcasting Company and IOL
Largest news station in ZA
"Our values are conversations and partnerships, restoration of human dignity, and building a common future" (South African Broadcasting Corporation, n.d.).
Was established through an act of Congress in 1936
Funded primarily by the ANC
Has been accused of favoring the ANC, having a lack of objectivity, and selective news coverage.
Has blacklisted certain reporters that are critical of ANC
IOL South Africa
Second largest new source in ZA
Is a collaboration of 15 independent news sources in ZA
Mission is to "represent the group as a while online, using a mix of elements from newspaper titles along with fast-breaking news" (IOL, n.d.).
Is owned and operated through the company Independent Newspapers
Independent Newspapers is run in Dublin, Ireland and has stations around the world
The company acquired debt and is in communications with President Zuma to sell the ZA section of the organization
Protection of State Information Bill
Proposed legislation to replace current Protection of Information Act
Will prevent governmental information from being published (Protection of State Information Bill, n.d.).
Will put whistleblowers and those who try to expose corruption in the media and government in jail (Human Rights Watch, 2013).
Popularly known as the Secrecy Bill
Right 2 Know ZA
Launched in 2010 as a response to the Protection of State Information Bill
Holds events and educates public
Has four main goals:
Stop the Secrecy Bill
Increase access to existing information
Media freedom for all
Justice for whistleblowers
Runs on donations
(Reporters Without Borders, 2013)
Media sources? CNN
Medial controls? the market/people
Bias? Freedom of Opinion/mostly unbiased
The Middle East
Arab Spring= Pro-Democracy Uprisings
Media coverage, including social media, has been key in ensuring the success of many of the Arab springs, but also in the repression of other revolutions around the world (Bashri et. al 2012).
• President Enrique Peña Nieto (PRI) connection with
Televisa (Tuckman, 2012)
•Response: Yo Soy 132 Movement (About Yo soy, 2013)
Present Day Media Control
o He owned the media for 14 years, from 1972 to 1986
o The fall of Ferdinand Marcos in 1986 transformed the structure of media ownership in the Philippines
He used to limit the ownership of media and placed censorships on what used to be the freest presses in Asia
After his fall more newspapers were published, radio stations were set up, and a number of television stations (Coronel).
• Who owns it?
o The Government
The President (Library of Congress, 2006).
o It became about economics
Whoever could afford it would begin to start broadcasting (Coronel).
o Independent businesses
Started following the way news was done in America
• Tabloid journalism instead of serious topics like it used to (Coronel).
• HB 3306 Right of Reply Bill
o Affect print, media and internet (websites, emails, internet, social media, and electronic devices)
o Affect more than 60 million people (Tubeza, 2009).
IEP: Saudi Arabia
• Who owns it
o Most newspapers are privately owned but are subsidized and regulated by the government
Basic Law states that media’s role is to educate and inspire unity so most popular grievances go unreported
o Government owns and operates the radio and television companies
Censor offensive material
• Pork, Christianity and other religions, alcohol and sex (Cochrane, 2008).
o Criticism of the government and royal family and the questioning of Islamic tenets are not tolerated (Which validates what the IEP students said)
o Threats of fines and closures of publication (Cochrane, 2008).
General responses from IEP student
Mixture of gvt. and private control of media
Heavy censorship -> More Freedom
Rely on internet (BBC, 2012)
Reporters Without Borders: #153
Ideals -> Reality
PRI Government and Media
Awards to abiding media
Movement of Independence
Murders of journalists began
Drugs and Corruption (Knight Center for Journalism in the Americas, n.d.)
Television is biased toward the official party (Merill & Miro, 1996)
International Press Institute (2011) named Mexico one of the most dangerous countries in the world for journalists (BBC, 2013).
(Knight Center for Journalism in the Americas, n.d.)
(BBC News Africa, 2013).
(South African Broadcasting Corporation, 2013).
(Independent News & Media, n.d.)
(Independent Online, n.d.).
(Right 2 Know, 2013).
2013 Reporters Without Borders World Press Freedom Index: #110
Friendly ties with station are a part of Obama administration's "signature foreign policy goal of improving ties with the Arab and Muslim worlds" (Kessler 2012).
Content is geared toward “fanning the flames of Muslim outrage” (Kessler 2012). Much of it is used to fuel hatred for America.
AJA & AJE used as political tools?
About yo soy 132. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://sosyosoy132.wordpress.com/about/
Apartheid in South Africa. (n.d.). Retrieved April 30, 2013 from Wikipedia:
Austin, P. (2010). Double Vision: Al Jazeera English at odds with the American media. Kennedy School
Bashri, M., Netzley, S., & Greiner, A. (2012). Facebook revolutions: Transitions in the Arab world,
transitions in media coverage? A comparative analysis of CNN and Al Jazeera English's online coverage of the Tunisian and Egyptian revolutions. Journal Of Arab & Muslim Media Research, 5(1), 19-29. doi:10.1386/jammr.5.1.19_1
BBC. (2012). South Korea profile. Retrieved from http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-asia-pacific-
BBC. (2013). Mexico country profile. Retrieved from
BBC News Africa. (2013). South Africa profile. Retrieved from:
Cochrane, P. (2007). Saudi arabia's media influence. Retrieved from http://www.arabmediasociety.com/?article=421
Coronel, S. (n.d.). Media ownership and control in the philippines. Retrieved from
Cottle, S., & Rai, M. (2008). Television news in South Africa: Mediating an emerging
democracy. Journal Of Southern African Studies, 34(2), 343-358. doi:10.1080/03057070802038017
Council on Foreign Relations (n.d.). Media Censorship in China. Retrieved from http://www.cfr.org/china/media-censorship-china/p11515
Frugal Dad (2011, November 22). Media consolidation: The illusion of choice (info graphic). Retrieved
Huerta-Wong, J. E. G., & Gomez, R. (2013). Concentración y diversidad de los medios de comunicación y
las telecomunicaciones en México.
Comunicación y Sociedad, 19, 113-152.
Human Rights Watch. (2013). South Africa: ‘Secrecy bill’ improved but still flawed.
Independent news & media. (n.d.). Retrieved on April 29, 2013 from Wikipedia:
Independent Online (South Africa). (n.d.). Retrieved on April 30, 2013 from Wikipedia:
IOL. (n.d.). About IOL. Retrieved from: http://www.iol.co.za/
Kessler, O. (2012). The Two Faces of Al Jazeera. Middle East Quarterly, 19(1), 47-56.
Knight Center for Journalism in the Americas. (n.d). Map of violence against the media. Retrieved from
Library of Congress Federal Research Division. (2006). Country profile: Philippines. In Retrieved from
Merrill, L. T., & Miro, R. (1996). Mexico: A Country Study. Washington: GPO for theLibrary of Congress.
Retrieved from http://countrystudies.us/mexico/
Minemura, K. (2010, March 26). China bans reporting on 18 subjects. Retrieved from http://www.asahi.com/english/TKY201003250329.html
Press Reference (n.d.). China press, media, TV, radio, Newspapers. Retrieved from http://www.pressreference.com/Be-Co/China.html
Protection of State Information Bill. (n.d.). Retrieved April 30, 2013 from Wikipedia:
Reporters Without Borders (2013). 2013 world press freedom index: Dashed hopes after spring.
Retrieved from http://en.rsf.org/press-freedom-index-2013,1054.html
Right 2 Know. (2013). What we do. Retrieved from:
South African Broadcast Corporation. (n.d.). About the SABC. Retrieved from:
South African Broadcasting Corporation. (n.d.). Retrieved on April 20, 2013 from
Tubeza, P. (2009, May 30). Right of reply bill to cover bloggers. Retrieved from http://newsinfo.inquirer.net/breakingnews/infotech/view/20090530-207999/Right- of-r eply-bill-to-cover-bloggers
Tuckman, J. (2012). WikiLeaks reveal US concerns over Televisa- Peña Nieto links in 2009. Retrieved from
Young, D. (2013). The party line: How the media dictates public opinion in modern China. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley & Sons. Retrieved from http://reader.eblib.com.ezproxy.library.wwu.edu/%28S%2812s4svvdytb11spkaf1f2zhr%29%29/Reader.aspx?p=861775&o=1338&u=hgz5dC6Lzu7fF7gGpwenbw%3d%3d&t=1370326011&h=CC0EE0CB35524E8068931BEAE675ADF55FF8B02D&s=17421893&ut=4509&pg=1&r=img&c=1250&pat=n
Zhao, Y. (2004). The state, the market, and media control in China. Who owns the media: Global trends
and local resistance, 179-212.
(Reporters Without Borders 2013)