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Tayyaba Masood

on 14 February 2014

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Transcript of LUNGS

Lung diseases affecting the alveoli include

: An infection of the alveoli, usually by bacteria.

A slowly progressive pneumonia caused by the bacteria.

results from damage to the fragile connections between alveoli. Smoking is the usual cause. (Emphysema also limits airflow, affecting the airways as well.)

Pulmonary edema:
Fluid leaks out of the small blood vessels of the lung into the air sacs and the surrounding area. One form is caused by heart failure and back pressure in the lungs' blood vessels; in another form, direct injury to the lung causes the leak of fluid.

Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS):
Severe, sudden injury to the lungs caused by a serious illness. Life support with mechanical ventilation is usually needed survive until the lungs recover.

A category of conditions caused by the inhalation of a substance that injures the lungs. Results from breathing in coal, graphite, or man-made carbon.
Diseases that affect the airways include:

: The airways are persistently inflamed, and may occasionally spasm, causing wheezing and shortness of breath. Allergies, infections, or pollution can trigger asthma's symptoms

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD):
Lung conditions defined by an inability to exhale normally, which causes difficulty breathing. Smoking is leading cause. Alveoli lose elasticity. Walls deteriorate.

Chronic bronchitis:
A form of COPD characterized by a chronic cough. Lining of airway is irritated and inflamed.

: Lung damage allows air to be trapped in the lungs in this form of COPD. Alveoli walls break down. Difficulty blowing air out.

Acute bronchitis
: A sudden infection of the airways, usually by a virus. Inflamed bronchi.

Cystic fibrosis:
A genetic condition causing poor clearance of mucus from the bronchi. The accumulated mucus results in repeated lung infections.

What is it?
Uncontrolled growth of abnormal cells in one or both lungs. These abnormal cells do not develop into healthy lung tissue and do not perform the normal function.
Tumors can form and interfere with the normal function of the lung.
Lung cancer is caused by a combination of multiple mutations in the DNA.
Other Lung Diseases/Infections
Anatomy of Lungs
Spongy, air-filled organs
Located on either side of the chest
They are covered by a thin layer of tissue known as pleura, which also lines the chest cavity.
A thin layer of fluid works as a lubricant to allow the lungs to expand smoothly when breathing.
By: Tayyaba Masood, Grace Chang, Huda Syed
Breathing Process
Air passes into the trachea through the Bronchi, which divide into smaller and smaller bronchioles.
The bronchioles end in a cluster of air sacs called alveoli that are wrapped in capillaries.
There, the oxygen from the air is absorbed into the blood and CO2 is transferred from the blood to the alveoli to be exhaled.

Primary vs. Secondary:
Primary lung cancer is when the cancer originates from the lung cells. Whereas, secondary lung cancer is when the cancer metastasizes from another part of the body to the lungs.
TYPES (based on the microscopic appearance of the tumor cells)

Non-Small Cell:
Most common type of lung cancer (85%). Subtypes:
Squamous cell carcinoma:
Arise in the central chest area in the bronchi; stays within lungs but can spread to lymph nodes; grows large forming a cavity.
Arise in the outer/peripheral area of lungs; can spread to lymph nodes and beyond
Bronchioloalveolar carcinoma:
Develops at multiple sites in the lungs and spreads along the preexisting alveolar walls; most common in non-smoking women and the Asian population.

Large cell carcinoma:
Least common; tendency to spread to lymph nodes and other places.
Small Cell:
10-15% of lung cancers. Associated with heavy smokers. Most aggressive. Metastasizes rapidly and to many sites before it is often discovered.
Smoking & Lung Cancer
Nearly 90% of lung cancers are caused by tobacco use, specifically cigarette smoking.
Among those who smoke two or more packs of cigarettes per day, one in seven will die of lung cancer. (Length of time as a smoker is what matters)
Tobacco smoke contains over 4,000 chemical compounds (many carcinogens such as nitrosamines and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons)
Smoking damages the cells that line the lungs. When you inhale cigarette smoke (full of carcinogens), changes in the lung tissue begin almost immediately. Destroys cilia. Damages alveoli (makes them less stretchy)
At first your body may try to repair the damage, but with repeated exposure, the normal cells are increasingly damaged. The damage causes cells to act abnormally and eventually cancer may develop.
Other causes of lung cancer include exposure to certain chemicals and gas, pollution, previous lung disease, genetics, and other cancers.
Signs and symptoms of lung cancer:

A new cough that doesn't go away
Changes in a chronic cough or "smoker's cough"
Coughing up blood, even a small amount
Shortness of breath
Chest pain
Losing weight without trying
Bone pain





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