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Instructional Theories

Robert Gagne
by

Shannon Rist

on 17 February 2010

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Transcript of Instructional Theories

Me as Robert Gagne? He's probably turning over in his grave... but here goes! My assignment - Take on the persona of one of learning theorist, Robert Gagne and portray what he would say about the past, present, and possible future vision of technology use in our schools I became famous for
my theory of
Nine Learning Events.
To learn more, go here:
http://bit.ly/16118G Robert Gagne This is me in
the good ol' days I felt that instructional theory was needed during my generation and subsequently developed a special interest in the topic. In my opinion, there were much more efficient ways to teach and stimulate learning in students. I believe that Learning has two parts, one that is external to the learner and one that is internal. I am best known for my Learning Outcomes, Learning Conditions, and Nine Events of Instruction. (See Resources)

There are several different types or levels of learning and each type of learning requires a different kind of instruction. Different internal & external conditions are necessary for each type of learning. The external conditions are the things that the teacher puts together during instruction, while internal conditions are skills and capabilities that the learner has already mastered. Future Resources My theory tends to side with the behaviorist or teacher-centered approach to education principles. My focus is on results and behaviors that are affected by instruction. The outcomes of learning are measurable through testing, drills, practice, and immediate feedback. In order to learn higher-order skills, the learner must know and understand lower-order skills. (http://www.ibstpi.org/Products/pdf/chapter_2.pdf) My theories, particularly my 9 events, were in action during my generation. (http://coe.sdsu.edu/eet/articles/gagnesevents/) Here they are with examples of each event put into practice.

1.Gain Attention - Pique the learners' interest in the subject.
Example: Show a s'more. Talk about how delicious it is.

2.Inform Learner of Objective - Let the learners know what they will be learning.
Example: Today, we will learn how to make a s'more.

3.Recall Prior Knowledge - Get the learners to think about what they already know.
Example: Has anyone ever had a s'more? Where? When? What is it made of?

4.Present Material -Teach the topic.
Example: Show learners how to make a s'more.

5.Provide Guided Learning - Help the learners follow along as the topic is presented.
Example: Provide picture posters of steps involved in making a s'more.

6.Elicit Performance - Ask learners to do what they have been taught.
Example: Give learners ingredients to make their own s'more.

7.Provide Feedback - Inform learners of their performance.
Example: Circulate around the classroom to observe and help learners.

8.Assess Performance - Evaluate learners on their knowledge of the topic.
Example: Examine learners' s'mores. If correctly made, they get to eat them.

9.Enhance Retention and Transfer - Aid learners in remembering and applying the new skill.
Example: Have learners make s'mores for a snack during the week or a class field trip.
Past ME With the rise of technology, Things have changed since the 1960’s. There are different types or levels of learning and each different type of learning requires different types of instruction. With Technology we are given an vast supply of options for teaching which require all different levels of instructor guidance, depending on the students needs.

I see much more potential for my work to be relevant in this generation. I have provided a map, but it is up to the designer to interpret that map into a direction the audience will understand and relate to. Today’s designers need to modify the 'commandments' for today's media and learners. This doesn't mean the direction changes, only the path. Human nature is to follow patterns. Are we updating these patterns and delivery methods for today's generations? Present An example of my Nine Events put into use today:

1.Gain Attention - Pique the learners' interest in the subject.
Example: Show a s'more. Talk about AND SHOW how delicious it is with flash animation.

2.Inform Learner of Objective - Let the learners know what they will be learning.
Example: Briefly summarize steps with a quick multimedia presentation.

3.Recall Prior Knowledge - Get the learners to think about what they already know.
Example: Create Mind Map of S’mores and associations. Has anyone ever had a s'more? Where? When? What is it made of?

4.Present Material - Teach the topic.
Example: Give students step-by-step tutorial on using presentation software and has add tutorial to learners’ computers.

5.Provide Guided Learning - Help the learners follow along as the topic is presented.
Example: Demonstrate how to create a diagram and present it on the video projection screen.

6.Elicit Performance - Ask learners to do what they have been taught.
Example: Show students how to use tools to type in text, add links, add pictures, use sounds, etc. Facilitate the learning process by giving hints and cues when needed.

7.Provide Feedback - Inform learners of their performance.
Example: Circulate around the classroom to observe, help and give feedback to learners.

8.Assess Performance - Evaluate learners on their knowledge of the topic.
Example: Ask students to present their tutorial on how to make S’mores.

9.Enhance Retention and Transfer - Aid learners in remembering and applying the new skill.
Example: Have learners make s'mores for a snack during the week or a class field trip.
There are endless possibilities in the future of Educational Technology Design.

New technologies and resources can facilitate levels of learner control that was once thought unfeasible. Learners have instant access to information, and the ability to link information. Technology is becoming more and more adaptable and interactive. In these learning environments the learner can be more dominant.

A lesson may only involve self-pacing of instruction by the students with the content, materials, and testing procedures prescribed by the instructor. Conversely a program could be individualized with students making their own decisions, and instructors serving as facilitators. This can all be dependent on what type of work the student is doing, for example, Math or English. Different subjects could involve more or less teacher involvement.

The field of instructional design has developed and become more conventional over the years. There are also far more people involved in the field. With the continued advancement of technology, there are many more areas of specialization and delivery options. I sincerely hope that my successors continue to expand and build on my ideas in order to continue improving educational technology.
My belief is that learning
is a process.
A student must be completely
competent and each level before
moving on to the next.
They must learn and understand
lower level skills before tackling the next levels. Learning Outcomes. Robert M. Gagne (http://online.sfsu.edu/~foreman/itec800/finalprojects/annie/gagne'slearningoutcome.html)

Learning Conditions. Robert M. Gagne
(http://tip.psychology.org/gagne.html)

Nine Events of Instruction. Robert M. Gagne
(http://www.e-learningguru.com/articles/art3_3.htm).
Applying Learning Theories to Online Instructional Design. Peter J. Patsula. Sookmyung Women's University, Seoul. 1999
http://www.patsula.com/usefo/webbasedlearning/tutorial1/learning_theories_full_version.html

Learning Hierarchies. Robert M. Gagné
http://www.ibstpi.org/Products/pdf/chapter_2.pdf

How To Plan Effective Training Sessions. Michael Roberts
http://www.notrain-nogain.org/Man/TtT/mich.asp

The Future Role of Robert M. Gagné in Instructional Design; Rita C. Richey
http://www.ibstpi.org/Products/pdf/chapter_10.pdf
I was born in 1916 in North Andover, Massachusetts.
After receiving an A.B. at Yale University in 1937,
I went on to pursue my PH.D. in Psychology from
Brown University, which I obtained in 1940.

I was a professor for many years at numorous universities - Penn State, Princeton, Florida State University and Connecticut College for Women just to name a few.

For 9 years I was the Director of Perceptual Motor Skills for the Air Force. I developed my famous book “Conditions of Learning” while working for the Air Force, which describes eight kinds of learning and nine events of instruction.
(See Resources)

I also spent some time as a consultant to the Department of Defense and to the United States Office of Education. In addition, I served as a director of research at the American Institute of Research in Pittsburgh.
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