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The Multiple Intelligances- Howard Gardner

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nikki champ

on 27 September 2013

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Transcript of The Multiple Intelligances- Howard Gardner

The Multiple Intelligences- Howard Gardner

Howard Gardner - His Multiple Intelligence Theory
Introduction of theory:

Gardner's theory was introduced in the early 1980's
- He believed that human cognitive competence is better described in terms of Intelligences.
- everyone has all these intelligences but range and extent differs.
Gardner described an intelligence to be:
- ability to problem solve
- fashion products that are of consequence in particular cultural setting or community.
- all intelligence has external and internal information
- all intelligences must have a core operation.
The original Intelligences:
In depth - Musical Intelligence
This intelligence is defined as having an ability or skill in music.
Music can be defined as an intelligence because:
- it has its own symbolic language system
- it has an important role for developmental stages in the early years in children.
. Gardner, H. (2006) . Multiple intelligences: New horizons. New York: Basic Books.

. Gardner, H (1999) Intelligence Reframed: Multiple Intelligences for the 21st Century . New York. Basic Books

. Headley, J. (2013, May 22). Its not about the nail. [Video file]. Retrieved from:

. Walter, Phil (photographer). (2012). Solomon portrait [photo]. London, England: Phil Walter/Getty Images.

. Mikoll. (2012, April 09). Women parking: the worlds best or should that be worst car parking video ever. [Video file]. Retrieved from:

Gardner's theory was formed based upon a disagreement of Binet's idea about intelligence.
Binets theory was the introduction of the IQ test
sophisticated versions of this include:
- SAT's
- This only looks at the IQ mind and failed to take into account any other form of human endeavor.
- This limits any other form of incredible ability and intellect in a different concept or subject.
- eg. Olympian runner.

body/ kinaesthetic
logical/ mathematical
These intelligences are biologically linked.
They do not operate singularly
any adult job requires more than just one intelligence.


kinaesthetic/ body intelligence is cognitive features of the body.
- this is proved as an intelligence because:
* body movement is a human advantage
* it occurs in developmental stages - especially in children
*it is a universal feature/skill
* the body is constant in problem solving
Mathematical intelligence
This Intelligence is considered to be one of problem solving at a rapid rate.
This is a non verbal intelligence.
This is considered an intelligence because:
- its a universal language
- it is exhibited through empirical criteria.
From/ Chuck Norris
Linguistic intelligence is having an understanding and ability in language and literacy.
Reasons it is considered as an intelligence:
- empirical criteria
- Language is universal
- language development is constant in children
- Language is even evident in
hearing impaired
Spatial intelligence

spatial intelligence is considered to be problem solving in the form of use for navigation in the system of maths.
This intelligence means you can visualise objects from any angles and have ease at assessing space.
This intelligence qualifies because of:
- empirical criteria
- It is not visual dependent.
Interpersonal intelligence:
This intelligence is having the ability to notice the differences among people.
In advanced cases of this intelligence adults can read these changes even when they are hidden.
These skills are highly evident in some adult job titles.
This is considered an intelligence because:
- This intelligence is not dependent on language
- Empirical criteria
- social interaction is key to this intelligence

Intrapersonal Intelligence
Intrapersonal intelligence is having a knowledge of your own internal aspects. Having this intrepersonal intelligence allows you to have intrapersonal skills.
This intelligence is focused around the behavior within a person.
This is considered an intelligence because:
- it is an intelligence that is needed for everybody. This is so a person can function and work with oneself. You need to have an understanding of who you are and your emotions so that you can function properly within society.
Intelligence in terms of education and educators:

This theory spoke immediately to educators, some schools even changed as a result of this theory being introduced.
This changed the way some schools were run.
These educational changes were not supported or suggested by Gardner’s theory, he wrote his theory as a psychologist not an educator.
-Even though Gardner did not have comment on the educational impacts, his theory has still had an impact on the school systems today.
- offer options or electives
- with required curriculum differentiate
- use different methods to teach and asses.
Recently considered:
Naturalistic Intelligence
Adding MI to the classroom
Criticism -
This intelligence is the ability to discriminate among living things (plants and animals) and have sensitivity to other features of the natural world (clouds, rocks, configurations).
Other considered
. Spiritual Intelligence
. Existential Intelligence

These have not yet been considered as there has not been enough scientific evidence to support his claim - evidence of all kinds from neurology
to archeology to anthropology.
Existential Intelligence
Existential intelligence can be defined as the ability to be sensitive to, or have the capacity for, conceptualizing or tackling deeper or larger questions about human existence, such as the meaning of life, and they tend to ask questions such as:
• Why are we born?
• What is consciousness?
• How did we get here?
• Why am I here? Why are we here?
• Are there other dimensions, and if so what are they like?
• Can animals understand us, or do animals go to heaven?
• Are there really ghosts?
• Where do we go when we die? Why do we die?
• Why are some people evil?
• Is there life on other planets?
• Where is heaven?

Spiritual Intelligence
Spiritual intelligence can be described as a deep self-awareness in which one becomes more and more aware of the dimensions of self, not simply as a body, but as a mind-body and spirit
The 8th
Social Intelligence is described as the ability to get along with others, and have them cooperate with you in group discussions/activities.Social Intelligence (SI) is one of a cluster of "intelligences", though being socially "intelligent" generally comes under the Interpersonal Intelligence.
Being socially intelligent can also be referred to a person with "people skills"
SI includes an awareness of situations and the social dynamics that govern them, and a knowledge of interaction styles and strategies that can help a person achieve his or her objectives in dealing with others.
How social interaction fits according to Vygotsky in with interpersonal intelligence......


" - War
Being socially intelligent, is crucial for a child's development! As Vygotsky claims "Children learn through participation and interaction".
Critics of multiple intelligence theory maintain that Gardner's work isn't ground breaking -- that what he calls "intelligences" are primary abilities that educators and cognitive psychologists have always acknowledged. Some critics wonder if the number of "intelligences" will continue to increase. Critics also believe that M.I. theory lacks the rigor and precision of a real science. Gardner claims that it would be impossible to guarantee a definitive list of intelligences.
Intelligences or Talent?
These opposing theorists believe that notions such as bodily-kinaesthetic or musical ability represent individual aptitude or talent rather than intelligence.
How do we add MI to the classroom?

We need to identify what we are already teaching. and what types of intelligences we need to add to the classroom?

Endangered Species Activities
Interpersonal –
• Discuss the differences between ‘endangered’, ‘threatened’ and ‘vulnerable’ species.
• Work in a group to list reasons for species becoming endangered.
Musical-rhythmic –
• Learn songs that have been written about the importance of helping endangered animals.
• Identify endangered animal sounds.

Verbal-Linguistic –
• Write articles or letters about endangered species to newspapers.
• Write an acrostic poem using the name of an endangered animal.
• Debate whether zoos or animals in captivity help or hinder endangered animals.

Logical-Mathematical –
• Write an action plan, using logical steps, for saving an endangered plant species.
• Graph the numbers of endangered animals in Australia.
• Draw a time line showing the decline of selected species which are now endangered.
• Research to find out what sorts of environmental problems have led to the endangered species.
• Develop a recovery plan to increase the declining numbers of the endangered animal.
• Investigate why some plants are endangered

• Play charades using endangered species.
• Create and perform movements to suit endangered species (e.g. giant panda, bilby, black rhinoceros)

• Design a poster that encourages people to join or support a conservation group.
• Create a diorama on a chosen endangered animal and its ideal habitat.
• Make a TV advertisement advocating the preservation of a particular species
Intrapersonal –
• Consider what he/she can do to protect endangered species.
• Research why it is helpful to endangered animals to be a good pet owner.
• Watch TV or video programs on endangered animals. Keep a ‘feelings’ dairy about what was viewed.

Create endangered animal masks to use in a class play.

Tape or create animal noises for other to guess their origin.

Predict the numbers of certain species alive in specific areas in 20 years’ time if development continues at the same rate.

Write a play script with endangered animal characters.

Role-play scenes that show how humans destroy animal habitats.

Assessment and MI
Adapt our assessment
Focusing on full potential
Success for all students
Assessment and instruction are partners
Linguistic Intelligence
Pigeonhole Principle
A child will contain all these 8 intelligences, but the range and extent of these intelligences differentiates from one child to another.
- VAK: Visual, Auditory, Kineasthetic

Children generally think they can only be one type of learner or carry certain intelligences, because that is what they can be told in School's. Students think that if they are a visual learner they can't learn audibly, so they tend to "switch off" and not listen.
Howard. G. believes that everyone has the capacity to expand their minds and learn in more then one way.

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