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Women's Oppression in the Workforce
Transcript of Women's Oppression in the Workforce
The Practice of hiring or denying a job based on an individual's sex or gender
Electricians, welders, and mechanics are dominated by male workers
Child Care, Nursing, and Educational Services are dominated by women
Prevents women from obtaining leadership positions in most jobs, which are seen as male dominated.
"Top Ten Male and Female Dominated Occupations." Columbia Broadcasting Company. Cbs.com, n.d. Web. 19 May 2014.
While women earn
77 cents for every male dollar, women of color earn only 64 cents. This begins out of college, where women of color struggle to earn starting-level jobs, especially in the economic sector.
All women are under-represented in management but women of color are less well represented, and paid less, than white women. According to a recent survey, women of color report a "concrete ceiling" -- one that cannot even be seen through due to a lack of role models and mentors -- barring their advancement.(39)
Types of Discrimination:
Women are also concentrated in industries such as textile, garment, and food processing
Many women find themselves trapped in the group of jobs just below senior management.
In 2008, male doctors starting in New York state made, on average, more than $16,000 more than newly trained female doctors
Most employers won't hire a women that is pregnant
In 2011, there were 11,364 complaints of sexual harassment made to the U.S. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission: 84 percent filed by women
Why is This Still a Problem?
Flaws in Current Laws
The Equal Pay Act of 1963
Lily Ledbetter v. GoodYear
Lily Ledbetter Fair Pay Act of 2009
Remove time limits for employees
The Paycheck Fairness Act in 2013
Employers must prove paycheck equality
Employees can challenge their employers freely
Filibustered in the Senate
Unequal payment regardless of amount of work
2/3's of world's work
10% of world's income
Greater risk of poverty
Lack of financial security and benefits
Restricted access to education
Threat of sexual assault
Why Does Gender Discrimination
in the Workforce Exist?
"Women are less career-oriented"
"Motherhood will interfere with a career"
"Women are less productive"
A woman's place is in the household and not in competition with men
Women's Oppression in the Workforce
-At Home and Abroad-
Abba, Agalia. "Female Activists Instrumental in Fight against Morocco's Oppression." New Internationalist. Web. 19 May 2014.
This is used for the in-class activity as one of the international testimonials that we want the students to follow along with throughout the lecture. Her story about how her oppression in education only fueled her to continue in her activism for women’s rights
Adams, Meghann, Michelle Schudel, and Danusia Lewakowski. "Women's Oppression: Not a Thing of the Past." Website of the Party for Socialism and Liberation. N.p., 12 Mar. 2010. Web. 12 May 2014. <http://www2.pslweb.org/site/News2?page=NewsArticle&id=13815
This article shows that more than half of the estimated total of those living in poverty, is made up of women. It highlights the growing gap in poverty rates between men and women and talks about the limitations put on women that keep them from earning promotions and, therefore, making more money. This gap is higher in the United States than any other part of the Western world and is more pertinent to black and latina women.
Gray, Emma. "Discrimination In The Workplace Against Women May Depend On Men's Marital Structure (STUDY)." The Huffington Post. TheHuffingtonPost.com, 17 May 2012. Web. 14 May 2014. <http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2012/05/17/discrimination-in-the-workplace-women-gender-revolution-marital-structure-men_n_1525863.html>.
The new study experimented, how an employed male's marriage effects their personality in regards to employed women. This study found, that those men who have negative views of working women tend to be the same men who held influential positions of power, which doesn’t bode so well for women trying to advance in male-dominated industries or companies. This source is reliable because it has more information on men's view of women in the workforce. We could use this source as an example to determine why men oppress women.
"Know Your Rights at Work: Workplace Sexual Harassment." AAUW Empowering Women Since 1881 Know Your Rights at Work Workplace Sexual Harassment Comments. N.p., n.d. Web. 11 May 2014. <http://www.aauw.org/what-we-do/legal-resources/know-your-rights-at-work/workplace-sexual-harassment/>
This source provides necessary statistics and studies needed to support the argument that women are still oppressed in their respective fields, though some more than others. For those who fall victim to such treatment there are percussions she can take and also contacts where she can find help, since an overwhelming majority of violence and especially sexual assault against women happens from supervisors and administrators.
Saunders, Abbie. "On the Cusp of Change: The Future of Africa's Working Women." The International. N.p., 27 Dec. 2012. Web. 12 May 2014. <http://www.theinternational.org/articles/287-on-the-cusp-of-change-the-future-of-afri>
Africa is proving to be more progressive in most respects in regards to women's empowerment. Women, however, still suffer from unequal treatment and economic fragility. This is a direct comparison with the conditions of women workers in the U.S, as both are practically identical situations. Such a comparison provides perspective to both those in the United States and those uneducated about women’s rights internationally.
Shah, Anup. "Women's Rights." Global Issues. N.p., 14 Mar. 2010. Web. 11 May 2014.<http://www.globalissues.org/article/166/womens-rights>
This article talks about the common gender discrimination that occurs in the workplace. It also shows many statistics, including some that say that women do two-thirds of the world’s work and only receive ten percent of the income for it. Due to this small income, women, and their children, are at a higher risk of being forced into poverty.
"Tanzania: Hazardous Life of Child Gold Miners." Human Rights Watch. Human Rights Watch, 28 Aug. 2013. Web. 19 May 2014.
An article from the Human Rights Watch, portrays a woman and her life as a gold miner with her children and the problems that they face. We are going to be using her story as one of our testimonials for the students to follow along with during the presentation.
"Workplace Sexual Violence Fact Sheet." National Sexual Violence Resource Center (NSVRC) |. N.p., n.d. Web. 12 May 2014. <http://www.nsvrc.org/saam/wpsv-fact-sheet>
This article clearly defines sexual harassment, and shows statistics of the outcome of sexual violence at work. It also talks about what actions are considered sexual harassment and shows the amount of people who no longer work due to these violent experiences. Lastly, it shows the number of sexual assaults reported between a specific number of years and the impact it had on the workplace environment.
Gibbs, Rachel, and Claire Martin. "Women's Oppression: Where It Comes from and How to Fight It." In Defence of Marxism. N.p., 9 Sept. 2013. Web. 12 May 2014. <http://www.marxist.com/struggle-against-womens-oppression-where-from.htm>.
Here we can see that more women entering into the labour market has been as a result of the changing nature of capitalism and has also allowed for wages to be pushed down as two wages has become the norm. For many women this has been far from an emancipating experience as they have been forced into casual sectors, being paid less than their male counterparts. This source is reliable, because it provided statistics for the information provided. This source is unbiased. This source can be used as a description of oppression of women in first world countries. It provides statistics and examples of the information given.
Rmuse. "The Silent Oppression of Women Is America’s Greatest Shame." PoliticusUSA. Http://www.politicususa.com, 6 Mar. 2011. Web. 12 May 2014. <http://www.politicususa.com/2011/03/06/shame-american-women.html>.
It is not understandable why in the greatest country in the world women earn 25% less than a man doing the same job. Many public school critics say teachers are just glorified baby-sitters who deserve minimum wage and no benefits as if they are teenage girls earning spending money. This source is reliable because it provides statistics and examples. However, I think this source is biased, it describes America as, "greatest country in the world". I think this source can be useful to show the wage gap between male and female doctors. This source would also be useful to show the oppression of female teachers.
Millar, K. "DEMOCRATIC SOCIALIST PERSPECTIVE." Women's Liberation in the Third World. N.p., 6 Aug. 2006. Web. 12 May 2014. <http://www.dsp.org.au/node/25>.
For women in the Third World the penetration of the capitalist market has a contradictory impact: it introduces new economic relations that begin to lay the basis for women to overcome their centuries-old oppression, however, it also takes over and utilises the archaic traditions, religious codes, and anti-woman prejudices, initially reinforcing them through new forms of discrimination and superexploitation. They marry at puberty and often give birth to as many children as physically possible. Their worth is generally determined by the number of children they produce. This source is reliable because there is no biased information. It gives plenty of information of what is expected of a woman at home in a third world country. This source gives a perspective of the life of a women in a third world country. It shows the difference of women and men in the work force, women were considered to be the baby makers, while men were the hard workers.
Patrick, Erin. "Compétence Égale, Chance Égale." John Hopkins School of Advanced International Studies. John Hopkins University, 2000. Web. 14 May 2014. <http://www.sais-jhu.edu/sites/default/files/Comp%C3%A9tence%20%C3%89gale,%20Chance%20%C3%89gale.pdf>
This source gives an insight to the troubles facing working women in Senegal and other parts of West Africa, also providing a direct comparison to issues women face in first world countries. The purpose of such a comparison is to show that women’s oppression, though it does differ from location to location is ultimately the same things around the world. Especially in the United States, I personally know a majority of people look at the treatment of women in developing countries and are appalled, yet they do not acknowledge similar injustices in their own home country.
Robinson, Marcus, Delyte Frost, Joan Buccigrossi, and Charles Pfeffer. "Gender: Power and Privilege." Consumerstar.org. WetWare, Inc., 2003. Web. 14 May 2014. <http://www.consumerstar.org/resources/pdf/Gender_4.pdf>.
Although women's education has increased, it has done nothing to deter wage discrimination. However, education is not the only thing that has increased with women, experience and child are has increased, but has done nothing to increase wages. This source is reliable because it gives facts and statistics of the information given. This source can be used to show that oppression is still used regardless of what women have done.
Women's Bureau (WB) - Quick Facts on Women in the Labor Force in 2010. N.p., n.d. Web. 14 May 2014. <http://www.dol.gov/wb/factsheets/Qf-laborforce-10.htm>.
This website shows many statistics of the number of women employed, percentages of races that are employed, and the incomes they receive. It also gives a list of most jobs women are capable of working in and their salaries. These women are obviously not earning what a full-time employee should be, and this article defines the large gap between a woman and man’s income.
"Women in the Labour Force in India." Catalyst. MSDS, n.d. Web. 31 May 2014.
This website provides statistics and analysis of the female labor force in India. The article provides an international perspective on female oppression in the workforce. It manly focuses on the inequities between men and women in the work force.
"WIC - Women's History in America." WIC - Women's History in America. Compton's NewMedia, Inc., 1994. Web. 12 May 2014. <http://www.wic.org/misc/history.htm>.
This website talks about the the Equal Pay Act of 1963, and women in 1970s who were paid about 45 percent less than men for the same jobs. This source can be used to show, that although there are laws passed to stop inequality and oppression, there are still abuses.
Richards, Sam. "Basis of Women’s Oppression." Basis of Women’s Oppression. Creative Commons Deed, Oct. 1990. Web. 14 May 2014. <http://www.marxists.org/history/erol/uk.hightide/basis.htm>.
In much of the Third World, women toil ceaselessly on domestic and subsistence work, such as carrying water, growing food, preparing food, making clothes. This source is reliable because it explains the domestic labor women are stuck doing. This source can be used as an example of women oppression in third world countries.
Pay Equity & Discrimination.— IWPR. N.p., n.d. Web. 14 May 2014. <http://www.iwpr.org/initiatives/pay-equity-and-discrimination>.
This article talks about pay equity and discrimination. It shows the development of how women are treated in the workforce and how it has impacted their lives throughout the years. It also highlights what is being done, by various organizations, to help decrease the wage gap in America between men and women.
"More women in the workforce could raise Japan’s GDP by 13%, says Goldman - The Japan Daily Press." The Japan Daily Press. N.p., n.d. Web. 14 May 2014. <http://japandailypress.com/more-women-in-the-workforce-could-raise-japans-gdp-by-13-says-goldman-0748194/>.
This article talks about the fact that more women in the workforce could raise Japan’s GDP. Japan has always been conservative in the ways women play a role in society, and now they are looking for more ways in which women can participate in different jobs. Recommendations to allow women to work in government have increased, but women have not yet been given enough incentive, like a higher salary, to actually take on the work.
"Sexual Harassment in the Workplace." National Women's Law Center. N.p., n.d. Web. 12 May 2014. <http://www.nwlc.org/our-issues/employment/sexual-harassment-in-the-workplace>
An overview of the problems women face in the workplace. Gives a basic definition of sexual harassment, and a solid base website for further information.
Bacchus, Nancy. “The Effects of Globalization on Women in Developing Nations.” Pforzheimer Honors College. Pace University, 2005. Web. 14 May 2014. <http://www1.aucegypt.edu/src/globalization/Documents/effect%20of%20glob%20on%20women.pdf>
Discusses women around the world and the changing societies and economies that they are facing. This source provides a basic overview towards international Women’s Rights and the conflicts regarding women in the workplace, especially in developing countries.
Waber, Ben. “What Data Analysis Says About Gender Inequality in the Workplace.” Bloomberg Business Week. Bloomberg. 30 Jan. 2014. Web. 12 May 2014. <http://www.businessweek.com/articles/2014-01-30/gender-inequality-in-the-workplace-what-data-analytics-says>
Offers statistics describing gender inequality in Fortune 500 companies. Confirms all other information collected regarding the various forms of discrimination.
Sexual Assault, Rape, Physical Assault
Wage Gap, Employment
Every stereotype about women ever ingrained into normal society
Inappropriate behavior by superiors,lack of growth in careers
Pyramid of Hate
Women's Suffrage Movement
Equal Pay Act of 1963
Civil Rights Act of 1964
World War II:
Rosie the Riveter
Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women (1979)
Local women dominate trade industry
majority in the Shea Butter industry
Live on less than $1 a day
restricted access to education
One of the worst levels of opportunity for female promotion
only 9.32% reach senior management level
Less pay for equivalent work
only paid 62% of male salary
Sexual harassment continues to be an issue in the workplace
less women have access to higher education
Face dangerous working conditions in factories
Laws Are Not Enforced
Employers can claim that lower pay is due to job performance, not gender
Victim Blaming for Victims
of Sexual Assault
Culture that discourages certain careers
(Christopher J. Swatosh)
(Employee Rights Post)
(Expert Witness Guru)
of the 1950s)