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Transcript of The Parthenon
Athens, Greece The Parthenon is an archaeological site located on the Acropolis in the capital of Greece, Athens. It was build between 447 - 432 BCE.
Why was the Parthenon built?
The significance of the Parthenon was to honour the Greek Goddess Athena, who was considered a protector of the Greeks.
The purpose of this temple is to shield and protect a statue of Athena inside.
why it was built
how it's made
sig of culture
ARCHITECTURE The Parthenon is a Classical architectural style temple.
The large foundation of the Parthenon was made of limestone and the columns were made of Pentelic marble, a material that was used for the first time.
The Parthenon is a Doric peripteral temple, which means that it has a rectangular floor plan with a series of low steps on every side.
Doric columns surround the entire outside of the structure and each entrance has an additional six columns in front of it.
Inside the building are two interior rooms. The “naos” was the room that held the statue, and the “opisthodomos” was used to store the treasury.
The Parthenon combines elements of the Doric and Ionic orders.
The Metopes of the Parthenon are carved images along the 92 marble panels along the top of the temple and are part of the Doric frieze. These images show stories and scenes of Greek mythology.
THE METOPES OF THE PARTHENON The metopes along the top of the temple are covered in various carved images. These images cover 92 marble pannels and are part of the Doric frieze. East Metopes The east metopes are located at the main entrance of the temple.
Images show a battle between the Olympian Gods and the Giants. West Metopes South Metopes North Metopes The South Metopes show scenes of the Battle of the Lapiths and Centaurs, also known as the Centauromachy. The West Metopes show scenes of the legendary invasion of Athens by the Amazons. The North Metopes show scenes of the Trojen War. What does the name "Parthenon" mean? Where did the name come from?... Some definitions for the name Parthenon include: The Virgin's Place
Temple of the Virgin Goddess
Temple of the Maiden
Place of the Parthenos
The Classical Age of Greece begins with the Persian War (490-479 B.C.) and ends with the death of Alexander the Great (323 B.C.). The Greeks produced great literature, poetry, philosophy, drama, and art. Also known as the period known as the Age of Pericles. The full development of the democratic system occured. How was the Parthenon Built?
The Parthenon was built by two main architects, and
Iktinos was the main designer and Callicrates was the main builder.
The Parthenon was built to replace an old temple that was burned by the Persians.
Twenty-two thousand tons of Pentelic marble was used. Ikinos Callicrates DORIC IONIC The Doric style is rather sturdy and its top (the capital), is plain. The Ionic style is thinner and more elegant. Its capital is decorated with a scroll-like design (a volute). The majority of the 469 silver talents were spent on the transportation of the stone from Mount Pantelakos, which was about 16 kilometres from Athens, to the Acropolis. It is estimated that there are around 13400 stones in the building. Floor Plan of the Parthenon Statue of Athena Inside the Parthenon, in one of the two rooms,
is a very large statue of Athena.
The statue showed Athena dressed in full armour and holding Nike (Goddess of Victory) to the Athenians in her right hand.
This statue of Athena is almost 40 ft. tall.
It was built of ivory and gold and was sculptured by the sculptor Phidias.
There is a modern replica of this statue at the replica of the Parthenon in Centennial Park, Nashville.
The statue of Nike in Athena's right hand stands 6 ft 4
Size of the Parthenon The base of the Parthenon is 69.5m by 30.9 m.
The columns are over ten metres tall.
The width to height ratio is 9:4.
The number of stones it took to construct the Parthenon is about 13400 stones. Significance to Culture The Greeks believed that Athena had helped them defeat the Persian Empire in the Persian Wars.
The city of Athens was named after this well respected Greek Goddess.
According to Greek mythology, Athena was the Goddess of wisdom and the daughter of Zeus. How the Parthenon was Destroyed It is unknown exactly why and when the Parthenon was destroyed, however; it was burned and was severly damaged.
During the 5th Century the Parthenon was raided by a Roman Emperor and the statue of the cult image of Athena was stolen and taken to Constantinople where it was later destroyed during the crusades (around 1204 AD).
In 1687 the Venetians under Francesco Morosini attacked Athens, and the Ottoman Turks fortified the Acropolis and used the building as a gunpowder store.
The gunpowder exploded and destroyed a large part of the building. Morosini and his men took the left over valubles and destroying the rest, leaving the ruins that can be seen today.
Restoration began in the early 20th century (1975), an effort made by the Greek government and help from Europe. Other Similar Buildings... The Pantheon - Rome, Italy Temple of Hephaestus - Athens, Greece Built only 2 years before the Parthenon Temple of Athena Nike - Athens, Greece Today, the Parthenon is a major tourist attraction in Greece. DEFINITIONS Athena Classical Greece
The Doric style is rather sturdy and its top (the capital), is plain. The Ionic style is thinner and more elegant. Its capital is decorated with a scroll-like design (a volute). Doric Order Ionic Order
Athena is the Greek goddess of was and wisdom. She was the daughter of Zeus and her known symbol is the owl. Sources: