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Do You See What I See?
Transcript of Do You See What I See?
A Cultural Evaluation of Visual Perception Matt Priest
EDFI 6750 - Booth
Bowling Green State University What differences in visual perceptual have been identified between cultures? What explanations have been proposed to account for these differences? In what way does Bronfenbrenner's ecological systems theory support the theories that have been proposed to explain differences in visual perception across cultures? Research Questions Methodology W. H. R. Rivers Research Findings first cross-cultural experimental psychologist discovered differences in the Mueller-Lyer illusion and horizontal-vertical line illusion Narrow my topic: carpentered world hypothesis, front-horizontal foreshortening theory, field-dependence/independence Quantitative articles: readily available, detect relationships, answer research questions 1898 Study testing illusion susceptibility based on altitude People living at higher altitude should have a higher macular pigmentation density Supporting results were not found Segall, Campbell, and Herskovits Carpentered World Hypothesis Front-Horizontal Foreshortening Theory A carpentered environment includes dwellings or objects that are primarily rectangular or boxy People living in a carpentered society are more susceptible to the Mueller-Lyer illusion Carpentered environment dwellers tend to interpret the two-dimensional illusion in 3-D Conducted studies with 16 societies across the globe Of these societies 12 were African communities, 1 was Filipino, and 3 were American Participants completed the Mueller-Lyer illusion, Sander parallelogram, and two horizontal-vertical line illusions Results showed that Western samples were more susceptible to the Mueller-Lyer illusion, but less susceptible to the the H-V line illusion than the non-Western samples People living in wide open expanses, plains, or vistas are more susceptible to the horizontal-vertical line illusion than people living in cities, rain forests, or canyon bottoms Vertical lines on the retina are interpreted as longer lines extending into the distance Pollack's Biological Theory People with increased density of macular pigmentation of the eye will have a higher contour detection threshold and are thus better at discerning the slight differences in length tested in the illusions used Illusion susceptibility is a simple matter of visual acuity Stewart Challenges Pollack Bornstein predicted illusion susceptibility should decrease with age due to an increase in macular pigmentation density Strong correlation between macular pigmentation and skin color Cross-cultural study in Zambia and the U.S. Testing for both race (skin color) and environment (carpenteredness) Significant results only found due to environment and not race Nisbett, Masuda, and others Found differences in relation to object versus field between Japanese and American participants People from Japan are considered field-dependent, whereas Americans are field-independent Field-dependent: holisitc, interdependent construal of self, focus on the field Field-independent: analytic, independent construal of self, focus on the object The Microsystem The Macrosystem The Chronosystem Ecological Systems Model Biology of the individual Environment Education Culture Age Urie Bronfenbrenner