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Transcript of Slavery
"sold down the river"
running away as slave meant being sold, harsher discpline, break-up of family 250,000 illegally after 1808 ban
Middle Passage of Atlantic
400 to 500 per ship
could be smelled 5 miles away Field Slaves: dawn to dusk
House Slaves: domestic servants
Spirituals: sacred songs, Christian, but with call & response of African songs - helped work rhythm
message of songs: being delivered from slavery, like Jews out of Egypt in Bible
coded message of songs: underground railway
some church services conducted at night
marriages not recognized
slaves often named after owners Owner and/or "overseer"
organized into work "gangs"
could be legally beaten for not working
whipping often done by "drivers"
strongest punishment was for sexual improprietry between Black men & white women
rape, not legal, but common - very rare to punish white man for sexual assault on black slave by 1790s, over 1/2 of original 13 States banned slavery
new agricultural land opened after 1810: slavery spread westward across South
Mason-Dixon Line: border between Penn and Maryland
1819: Missouri (slave) and Maine (free, broke off from Mass.) admitted to keep balance in Union
Missouri Compromise: line running parallel from Missouri border at 36-30n.
Compromise of 1850: California as free state, Utah and New Mex. with "popular sovereignty;" D.C. with limits on slave trading; also made the Fugitive Slave Law Dred Scott Case "Peculiar Institution: polite Southern way to refer to slavery
1619: first African slaves to work tobacco in Virginia
1793: invention of Cotton Gin: allowed large-scale cotton production by separating cottonseeds from fibres
"King Cotton:" by 1860, cotton was 58% of U.S. exports (so North benefitted, too)
cotton season was almost all year long
700,000 in 1790; 4 million in 1860
Black slaves were more than 50% of pop. in S.C. and Mississippi Missouri slave Dred Scott moved to free state (Illinois), then free territory (Wisconsin)
sued for freedom when they returned to Missouri in 1846
1857: final decision by Supreme Court: ruled that slaves weren't citizens, couldn't sue & that Bill of Rights meant Federal Gov. couldn't deprive citizens of their property (i.e. slaves)
also meant that banning slavery in new territories could be unconstitutional one of earliest abolition groups were The Quakers (see symbol "Am I Not a Man..." p. 173 of text)
White abolitionists included William Lloyd Garrison, newspaper publisher ("The Liberator")
Harriet Beecher Stowe wrote novel "Uncle Tom's Cabin" revealed conditions of slavery to northerners (Lincoln: "So you're the little woman who wrote the book that made this great war." illegal to teach slaves to read
Frederick Douglass :
his "Narrative" made him most famous African-American of his time and one of the foremost abolitionists
Equaino: slave narrative from someone born free in Africa, then slave, then freed again metaphor/code for safe houses, route, hiding places, food/clothing, contacts in escaping from slave to Free States/"Canada"
"conductors" did dangerous work of smuggling, including free Blacks
Harriet Tubman: 19 trips, 300 slaves freed; she was known as the "Black Moses" (told slaves "you'll be free or die")
used dogs to track runaways: would tear, kill if not pulled off Slave Revolts first major slave reovolt was NYC, 1712
largest was New Orleans, 1811
most famous: Nat Turner's Slave Rebellion, 1831
60 white people killed; Virginia; inspired by religious visions; did with out firearms
Turner hanged; up to 200 Blacks killed in retaliation Pro-Slavery Arguments provided all basic needs; better than "savage" Africa
"science" (racial superiority natural(
Bible: were slaves; Jesus never spoke against slavery
save souls by bringing Christianity
they're happy: singing, laughing, etc.