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Mind Development: From Infancy to Adulthood

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Transcript of Mind Development: From Infancy to Adulthood

Mind Development
From infancy to adulthood
Control over emotions is very poor in infants and is indicted through development with crying (Halfon and Regalado 2001), facial expressions and vocal tone (Calkins and Fox 2003). By 3 children developed motor skills, gain better emotional control and show improved attention and cognitive skills (Calkins and Fox 2003).
Preschoolers and Early Primary
Children become independent and in control of their behaviour, using
language to express their displeasure rather than tantrums and physical
aggression (Child and Youth Health 2013).
Between this age children become fearful of the unknown, like things in the dark and loud and sudden noises.

Primary Level and Pre-Teens
As children begin to approach their early teens, cues through hormones cause brain cells to form which affects their emotions (Herman 2005). At this stage both sexes want to fit in with their peers and become more socially involved. This is also where physical attractiveness and body image develop.
(Raising children network, 2011) states that the adolescent brain is affected emotionally through interactions with people around them and shaped by genes, brain development, the environment, family and friends. An emotional change that adolescents go through is being more self-conscience about physical appearance, which has an effect on their self-esteem
Early Adulthood
Young Adults may still be struggling with their role in life or their identity and thus afraid of not fitting in, or of rejection in a first long term relationship. Once feeling more secure they will be more comfortable with intimacy and ready to commit to long term relationships and career goals (Erikson 2012).

Family counts for 60% cognition early on (Briley, Harden and Tucker-drob, 2013), where bonds and support (Schore 1994) provide positive outcomes (Belsky 2007). The parents affect the neurobiological development, emotional state and behaviour of children 0-3 through actions (Schore 1994), pre-natal stress (Ashman,
Carver and Dawson 2000), depression
and violence (Halfon and
Regalado 2001).
Preschoolers and Early Primary
The family remains the centre of the world, where independence grows but not completely with objects (Child and Youth Health 2013). In preschool and early primary school children like to imitate their parents and siblings and parents build their self-esteem with attention, affection and by
showing an interest
(D'Alessandro, 2002).

Primary Level and Pre-Teens
Parental role models continue to play an important part through relationships and bonds and can affect development of the mind through influences on behaviour, emotions, judgements, and self-control. Through the use of positive influences and involvement, independence is encouraged (Herman 2005), which contributes to a positive development
(Galambos and Lerner 1998).
This is where parental influences can start to shape children’s behaviour. If a parent is an alcoholic, it sends the adolescent a message saying it’s okay to drink. Consumption during this developmental period affects the brain structure and function, including neuropsychological performance
(National Institute of alcohol
abuse and alcoholism
Early Adulthood
The 18-23 group generally switches from the role of a dependent to a fellow adult which changes the family dynamic. Parents allowing increased privacy and displaying trust greatly helps their independent offspring in forming a stronger sense of identity and exploration at a crucial development time (Bartle-Haring, Brucker & Hock 2002).
Preschoolers and Early Primary
Stimulation in the environment plays an important role in the healthy development of the brain, nurturing and positive and negative situations (Child Welfare Information Gateway, 2009) as in this early stage of concrete thinking children learn to group things together (University of
Michigan Health System
Primary Level and Pre-Teens
Here cues in the environment cause brain cells to form (Herman 2005). As myelination and pruning continue in the brain, the adolescent “become more capable of insight judgement, inhibition, reasoning and social conscience” (Better Brains for Babies 2014).
Adolescents growing up in a lower socioeconomic status (SES) environment are more likely to participate in delinquent and problem behaviour than their peers. This may be due in part to a lack of any institution(s) monitoring youth
activities in poorer communities
(Brooks-Gunn & Leventhal,
Early Adulthood
Environmental factors such as education and relationships effect cognitive development and the forming of an identity. Education plays a role in development by promoting exposure to numerous different world views, often different from in their early childhood (Arnett 2006). In this age group relationships can often last longer and include sexual relations and cohabitation, which effect personality, maturity and world-views
(Padgham & Blyth 1991).

Genetic disorders begin to present themselves in these early years. Genes contribute to below 25% cognition (Briley et all 2013) and by age 2 the brain is 80%-90% grown (Evans, Gerig, Gilmore, Gouttard, Hamer, Kang, Smith, Knickmeyer, Lin and Wilber 2008), where autistic children
present with larger heads
(Barnes 2010).
Preschoolers and Early Primary
The developing brain's adaptations are the result of both genetics and experience to prepare us to expect certain experiences by forming the pathways needed to respond to those experiences (Child Welfare Information Gateway 2009). Vision is hereditary and should be checked as vision loss can occur anytime
(Centres for Disease Control and Prevention 2014).

Primary Level and Pre-teens
Genetic cues cause brain cells to form (Herman 2005) where, “According to the National Institute on Mental Health (NIHM), there is a surge of production of the brain’s grey matter prior to puberty” (Pertler, 2009). This happen mostly in the frontal lobe of the brain, which controls executive functions
such as reasoning, impulsiveness
and planning.
Adolescent’s brain can be affected genetically in various manners. This is often seen through ‘Lafora Disease’ which is an inherited type of Epilepsy that can be fatal. This disease has symptoms eg: difficulty walking, muscle spasms and
dementia (National Institute
of Health, 2014).

Early Adulthood
Teens personality development progress and here they become stable and mature adults. The influence for this change comes from their genes (Srivastava, John, Gosling, & Potter 2003), where the developmental change activates new genes that improve cognition (Briley et al., 2013).
The environment maximises the genetic influences on cognition (Briley et al., 2013), through early stimulus to develop motor skills, vocabulary, vision and symbol recognition. An enriched, encouraging and routinely stable home is of the utmost importance as it affects a child’s behavioural disposition and their sleeping patterns
(Halfon and Regalado 2001).
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Music: ERH 2012, Sci - fi Alien and futuristic sounds and atmoshperes http://www.freesound.org/people/ERH/packs/3681/

From: http://crystalhollenbeck.com/wp-content/uploads/2011/09/happy-family-on-the-grass.jpg
From: http://cindyterebush.blogspot.com.au/2013/03/how-to-play-with-your-children-its.html
From: http://education2kid.blogspot.com.au/2010/08/childs-relationship-with-their.html
The effects from emotions, genetics, parents and environment play an important role in the developing mind through direct and indirect ways. By offering awareness, stimulation, encouragement and support, development is optimized through all stages of growth.

This presentation will explore four different themes of human development: From infancy to adulthood.


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