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edward and ardy's science cyanobacteria

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edward min

on 17 January 2013

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Transcript of edward and ardy's science cyanobacteria

CYANOBACTERIA
(Blue-Green algae) What is "Cyanobacteria"? Cyanobacteria, also known as blue green algae or Cyanophyta are unicellular and multicellular organisms. Cyanobacteria are also identified as prokaryotes, organisms that do not have a nucleus. Although most algae are eukaryotes, organisms that do have a nucleus, cyanobacteria are the only exception. They are also capable of obtaining energy through photosynthesis. Cyanobacteria can live in lakes, rivers, and estuaries. They usually appear in frequent and prolonged blooms of Cyanobacteria, interfering with water qualities, placing toxins on fish, invertebrates, and other aquatic fauna. They are one of the oldest organisms on Earth. These microscopic organisms date back to 4 billion years ago, and they play a huge role in the huge increase of oxygen in the Earth's atmosphere. The Next Bioenergy? Characteristics Cyanobacteria can go through different processes, for example, cyanobacteria can go through nitrogen fixation or nitrification. Nitrogen Fixation is when colonies of cyanobacteria differentiate into heterocyst cells. During this process, thick walls, called heterocysts form inside the cell. These walls are vital to nitrogen fixation, because they contain enzyme nitrogenase. Once these walls are formed, the cell is able to go through the process of nitrogen fixation. Heterocyst cells have been specialized for nitrogen fixation, and can change nitrogen into ammonia and nitrate gas.

Other cell types that the cyanobacteria can differentiate into is vegetative and photosynthetic cells. The bacteria are able to differentiate into these cell types under favourable living conditions. Reproduction of Cyanobacteria Cyanobacteria reproduces has 2 simple and positive methods of reproduction. The 2 different ways of reproductions are vegetative and asexual.

There are 3 steps for vegetative reproduction:
i) Fission
ii) Fragmentation
iii) Hormogonia

There are 4 steps for asexual reproduction:
i) By endospores
ii) By exospores
iii) By akinetes
iv) By naccocytes Nutritious... Cyanobacteria Spirulina is valued as a food source. With high protein and easy cultivation from ponds, it is a very important diet of tropical countries. It was eaten regularly by the Aztecs, and now it is served in several Oriental dishes. In the U.S., spirulina is sold in stores as a dried powder or tablet form for health. or Poisonous? Other species of Cyanobacteria produce populations that can be poisonous to humans and animals. Cattle and dogs (and occasionally humans) have been linked to blue-green pond scums. A species of cyanobacteria is responsible for a skin irritation, commonly known as "swimmer's itch." Since Cyanobacteria can convert up to 10% of
sunlight (drastic improvement over 1% rate of
crops like corn & sugarcane, as well as 5% rate of
algae), which can not only save energy and save
the earth (like fossil fuels), it doesn't take up much land. ZOOM 1000X Dangers of Cyanobacteria Cyano Harmful Algal Blooms (CyanoHABs) are harmful to everything; people, animals and even the environment. These Algal Blooms are cyanobacterial blooms that look like foam on the water surface. They are dangerous because they are able to block sunlight from reaching the water, and use up all the oxygen in the water, making plants and animals die. These Algal Blooms also have Cyanotoxins if consumed, and they do not have any known antidotes yet.

Animals and people who are exposed to CyanoHABs can get different type of illnesses, such as rash, hives or blisters on lips and under swimsuits. Inhaling consuming water, or water related things that have CyanoHABs can cause runny eyes and nose, sore throat, allergic reactions and even asthma-like symptoms.

Consuming water that has CyanoHABs can cause excessive diarrhea and vomiting, and also liver and kidney poisoning. Harmful algal Bubbles
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