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Krashen's 5 Thoeries
Transcript of Krashen's 5 Thoeries
He is an advocate of whole language approach, bilingual education, and recreational reading.
Secondary languages: German, French, Hebrew, Amharic, and Yiddish
Dr. Krashen also holds a black belt in Tae Kwon Do.
Three pieces of advice to a new ESL teacher:
1) Read for pleasure in your own second language(s).
2) Read everything written by Frank Smith and Jim Trelease.
3) Stay away from junk food. Stephen Krashen The Acquisition/ Learning Hypothesis This hypothesis proposes that the formal study of language leads to the development of an internal grammar editor. The Monitor Hypothesis The Natural Order Hypothesis proposes that all learners acquire language in a natural, predictable order.
-Grammatical knowledge and precision come in different stages
-Some stages come more quickly and easily
-Transitional forms are common; fossilization
-Build on major grammatical concepts and scaffold for specific linguistic rules The Natural Order Hypothesis Second language acquisition is the direct result of a learner's understanding the target language in natural communication situations. The Input Hypothesis For second language acquisition the biggest hindrance to a learner is a high-anxiety environment. Affective Filter Hypothesis The toilet is blocked and we cannot
bath the children until it is cleared. For a student to use the monitor they need:
focus on grammatical form
explicit knowledge of the rules According to Krashen, there are two ways of developing language ability. Acquisition involves the subconscious acceptance of knowledge where information is stored in the brain through the use of communication; this is the process used for developing native languages. Learning, on the other hand, is the conscious acceptance of knowledge ‘about’ a language (i.e. the grammar or form). Krashen states that this is often the product of formal language instruction.” Acquisition
• Like “picking up” our first language
- subconscious; informal situations
- uses grammatical ‘feel’
- depends on attitude
- stable order of acquisition
• Error correction is ineffective Learning
•Like formal study of a language languages in class
-conscious; formal situations-uses grammatical rules
-depends on aptitude
-simple to complex order of learning
•more efficient than informal exposure for adults’ second language proficiency Input language must be:
contain grammatical structures just beyond the acquirer's current level. (Easier for writing than speaking) Motivation to learn the language
Self Esteem *Allow students a silent period during which they can acquire some language knowledge by listening and understanding, as opposed to forcing immediate speech production. *Focus of teaching should be communication, not rote rule learning. The monitor is for polishing once language is acquired. *Use context, extralinguistic information (gestures, pictures, etc.) and general background knowledge when teaching. *Start with major grammatical concepts and build towards specific linguistic rules. (ex: scaffolding)