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Transcript of Poland
God, Honor, Fatherland POLAND Gdańsk
Łeba Mazury Warszawa
Poznań Holy Cross Mountains Tatry Sudety Polish flag
Polish Anthem Polish Emblem
Population: 39.5 million.
Ethnic Groups and Languages: About 98 percent of population ethnic Poles; largest minority groups Ukrainians, Belarusians, and Germans; estimates of minority populations vary greatly. Polish, a West Slavic language, official and universally used; regional dialects do not impede communication.
Religion: About 96 percent of population Roman Catholic, according to 1991 survey; small numbers in various Protestant and Orthodox denominations and small Jewish population.
Education: About 98 percent of population over age fifteen literate. Eight grades of primary school compulsory; secondary program divided into college preparatory and vocational tracks. Institutions of higher learning include universities, polytechnical schools, and specialized academies such as medical and agricultural schools.
Currency: złoty 1zł = 570 COP
History the first known settlement is Biskupin Iron Age, around 700 BC
Poland began to form into a recognizable unitary and territorial entity around the middle of the 10th century under the Piast dynasty.
Mieszko I, was baptized in 966, adopting Catholic Christianity as the nation's new official religion Jagiellon dynasty (1385 - 1569)
•Under the Jagiellon dynasty Poland forged a union with its neighbour, the Grand Duchy of Lithuania
•In 1410, a Polish-Lithuanian army inflicted a decisive defeat on the Teutonic Knights, both countries' main adversary, in the battle of Grunwald Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth (1569 - 1795)
• A golden age after the Union of Lublin which gave birth to the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth. For 10 years between 1619 and 1629 the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth was at its greatest geographical extent in history, incorporating most of what today is Poland, Ukraine, Belarus, Lithuania, Latvia, Estonia, and some parts of modern Russia.
• In the mid-seventeenth century, a Swedish invasion and the Cossacks' Chmielnicki Uprising which ravaged the country marked the end of the golden age.
• Numerous wars against Russia
• the Great Sejm, which passed the Constitution of May 3, 1791—the world's second modern constitution and the first in Europe
• the three partitions of Poland (1772, 1793, and 1795) which culminated in Poland's being erased from the map of Europe and its territories being divided between Russia, Prussia, and Austria.
Partitions of Poland (1795 - 1918
In 1807, Napoleon I of France recreated a Polish state, the Duchy of Warsaw, but after the Napoleonic Wars, Poland was again divided in 1815 by the victorious Allies at the Congress of Vienna. The eastern portion was ruled by the Russian tsar, Austrian-ruled Galicia, Free City of Kraków Reconstitution of Poland (1918 - 1939)
Reconstitution of Poland (1918 - 1939)
• During World War I, all the Allies agreed on the reconstitution of Poland that United States President Woodrow Wilson proclaimed in Point 13 of his Fourteen Points.
• In November 1918, Poland regained its independence as the Second Polish Republic (II Rzeczpospolita Polska).
World War II (1939 - 1945)
• in 1939, when Nazi Germany invaded on 1 September and the Soviet invasion of Poland followed by breaking the Soviet–Polish Non-Aggression Pact on 17 September.
• Warsaw capitulated on 28 September 1939. As agreed in the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact, Poland was split into two zones, one occupied by Germany while the eastern provinces fell under the control of the Soviet Union.
Postwar communist Poland (1945 - 1989)
• Communism in Poland
• Labour turmoil in 1980 led to the formation of the independent trade union "Solidarity" ("Solidarno"), which over time became a political force. Despite of persecution it eroded the dominance of the Communist Party and by 1989 won in parliamentary elections.
• Lech Wasa, a Solidarity candidate, eventually won the presidency in 1990. The Solidarity movement heralded the collapse of communism across Eastern Europe.
Present day Poland (1989 - now)
• A shock therapy programme of Leszek Balcerowicz during the early 1990s - market economy.
• In 1999, Poland joined the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO
• joined the European Union on 1 May 2004.
• On April 10, 2010, the President of the Republic of Poland, Lech Kaczyski, along with 89 other high-ranking Polish officials died in a plane crash near Smolensk, Russia.
Polish language West Slavic language
Latin alphabet with a few additional letters: ą, ę, ć, ł, ń, ś, ż, ź. There are also groups of letters: ch, cz, rz, sz, szcz
The most difficult tongue twister
W Szczebrzeszynie chrząszcz brzmi w trzcinie i Szczebrzeszyn z tego słynie.
In Szczebrzeszyn a beetle buzzes in the reed, for which Szczebrzeszyn is famous
You are going to hear the basic phrases in Russian, Polish, Czech, Slovak, Latvian, Belarusian, Ukrainian and German. Try to identify which is which. http://downloads.bbc.co.uk/languages/audio_player/audio/oth/russian/preview/media/all.mp3
http://downloads.bbc.co.uk/languages/audio_player/audio/ger/quickfix/basics/media/basics.mp3 Culture of Poland
barszcz Dance Famous Polish People Nicolaus Copernicus (1473-1543) - renowned astronomer. Born in Toruń, and educated in the Universities of Cracow, Bologna, Padua where he read Medicine, and Ferrara where he earned a doctorate in Canon Law, Copernicus was the first in modern history to put forward a heliocentric theory of the Solar System. He first presented his discoveries in a preliminary draft entitled 'Commentariolus'in 1507, but did not publish a full version until the year of his death in the work 'De Revolutionibus Orbium Coelestium' (On the Revolutions of the Celestial Spheres).He was also a physician, economist, translator, cartographer and deviser of a system for the reform of the Julian calendar, and a public administrator (a servant of the King of Poland and was involved in the defence of Olsztyn Castle against an attack by the Teutonic Knights). Maria Skłodowska-Curie (1867-1934), renowned Polish physicist and chemist. She lived and worked in France. She was the first woman professor at the Sorbonne. Together with her husband, Pierre Curie, she discovered polonium and radium in 1898. She was twice awarded the Nobel Prize: in 1903 for physics (jointly with her husband) for research on natural radiation, and in 1911 in chemistry, for the extraction of pure radium. Frederic Chopin (1810-1849) - pianist; the greatest Polish composer. Born in Żelazowa Wola near Warsaw. Spent most of his life abroad, mostly in France. He composed his works almost exclusively for the piano: with orchestra - 2 concertos (in F-minor and E-minor), 'Variations on Mozart'; solos - 3 sonatas, 2 fantasias, 27 etudes, 25 preludes, 16 polonaises, 57 mazurkas, 19 waltzes, 19 nocturnes, 4 ballades, 4 scherzos, other minor works and also songs for solo performance. His works had an enormous influence on the music of the late 19th and early 20th centuries. Krzysztof Kieślowski (1941-1996) - film director and script writer. His career started in 1966 with short films, for example 'Workers '71' (1972) and 'Resume' (1975). His subsequent films brought him his first film festival awards, for 'The Scar' (1976) from the Gdańsk festival and 'Camera Buff' (1979) awarded in Moscow and Chicago. However, the 'Ten Commandments I - X' made in 1988-89 marked his permanent position in the film world (the FIPRESCI award). He had similar successes with 'The Double Life of Veronique' (1991), 'Three Colours: Blue' (won the Golden Lion in Venice), 'Three colours: white' (Silver Bear in Berlin) and 'Three Colours: Red' (nominated for an Oscar), made in 1993-94 by a Polish and French team. He won dozens of awards and distinctions for his work in film, for example the Felix from the European Film Academy. John Paul II, Karol Wojtyła (1920 - 2005) - Pope since 1978. He read Polish Philology at the Jagiellonian University, and pursued his interest in drama (he was a student actor and has written several plays and long poetic works). During the Second World War he attended a clandestine seminary preparing for the ministry in the Church and was ordained in 1946. In 1946-48 he studied for the Doctor's degree at the Angelicum Pontifical University in Rome. He was a lecturer of the Faculty of Theology of the Jagiellonian University until it was closed down by the Communist authorities in 1954. As Pope he would later erect the Pontifical Academy of Theology in Cracow. From 1956 he was a professor and head of the Department of the Ethics in the Faculty of Philosophy at the Catholic University of Lublin. In 1958 he was appointed a bishop, and five years later Metropolitan Archbishop of Cracow. In 1967 he received the cardinal's hat. On 16 October 1978 he became the first non-Italian for over 400 years to be elected to the See of St. Peter. The pontificate of John Paul II has been characterised by an openness to dialogue with the world at large and an extremely active, new form of evangelisation. He was the first pontiff in the history of the Roman Catholic Church to hold prayer meetings with representatives of all religions. He opened up a dialogue with followers of Judaism. He has consistently implemented the postulates of the Second Vatican Council. His pastoral work has included reform of Canon Law (1984), the publication of a new Catechism for the Roman Catholic Church (1992), the reorganisation of the Roman Catholic Curia, numerous encyclicals on a wide range of religious matters, starting with 'Redemptor hominis', new canonisations and beatifications. He has made close to 100 visits ('pilgrimages') to countries all over the world, many times to Poland, and regularly visits Roman and Italian parishes. His first visit to Poland in June 1979 provided the inspiration for the people who soon afterwards founded the Solidarity movement, which eventually led to the fall of Communism. The important messages of the pontificate of John Paul II are the protection of human life from conception to natural death, a repudiation of materialism in all of its modern guises and of the civilisation of death, respect for human rights and working-men's rights, work for world peace, opposition to totalitarianism, a new evangelism and a global evangelical renewal of the young.
On May 13th 1981 he was injured but survived an assassination attempt in Saint Peter's Square.
He died on April 2nd, 2005
Social Etiquette Dining Etiquette
•You may be expected to take off your shoes
•Offer to help the hostess with the preparation or clearing up after a meal is served. This is good manners
•Do not ask for a tour of the house
•Take small amounts of food initially so you can accept second helpings
•Expect frequent toasting throughout the meal. Toasts are only made with hard liquor (generally vodka).
Gift Giving Etiquette
•birthdays, name days and Christmas
•Give an odd numbers of flowers
•Do not give yellow chrysanthemums as they are used for funerals. Do not give red or white flowers, especially carnations and lilies
•Gifts are generally opened when received
Meeting and Greeting
•Greetings are generally reserved yet courteous
•high level of politeness (Where many languages opt for a you-thou kind of distinction between younger and older people and formal and informal situations, Polish uses a title: Pan, Sir, and Pani, Lady. So to ask someone formally if he or she speaks English, say: Czy Pan/Pani mówi po angielsku? Lit. Does the Sir/the Lady speak English? Polish people are even polite when they argue. You might hear the odd Pan jest idiotą. Sir, you're an idiot.)
•Do not use first names until invited to
Polish festive traditions Marzanna - on the fourth Sunday in the time of fasting is a ceremony of destruction. Destruction, or Death is represented by a doll named Marzanna, Morena or simply death. This doll is plunged into water or burned. Marzanna’s symbolism represents winter, death, sickness, destruction and starvation of the people. This ritual is meant to speed up the onslaught of spring and is to this day still practiced albeit much less commonly than in the past. Today this is primarily practiced by children plunging the Marzanna doll into water. Andrzejki (30th of November) - is the time of predictions for young ladies throughout Poland, regarding love and marriage. Although this ritual is widely known and practiced, there is uncertainty as to how this particular tradition came about. Regardless of it’s true origin, people agree that the signs have developed a Christian connotation. According to the Catholic calendar, the day of the holy Andrzejki ends the church-year, after which Advent begins. In Poland the tradition of Andrzejki has survived ages, and throughout it’s practice it’s never been allowed that older or married woman, nor boys are invited to participate. The most well-known and frequently used form of obtaining a prediction makes use of pouring heated wax or lead onto water through the opening of a key, and watching the thus formed silhouettes on the wall, you could see ghostly images of what the future would bring. A prediction of the same form was to burn paper and to observe the movable shadows on the wall. These and many other forms of making predictions were locally developed and depended on the needs and imaginations of the young ladies. The traditions have sustained until now and are still popular, although nowadays they are used primarily as a form of entertainment. For days in advance, Poles prepare the traditional foods and everyone anxiously awaits the moment when the first star, known as the Gwiazdka, appears in the eastern sky. For that is when the feast to commemorate the birth of the Christ Child begins.
There is always a thin layer of hay under the white tablecloth in memory of the Godchild in the manger. Before sitting down at the table, everyone breaks the traditional wafer, or Oplatek and exchanges good wishes for health, wealth and happiness in the New Year. This is such a deeply moving moment that often tears of love and joy are evoked from the family members who are breaking this symbolic bread. The Oplatek is a thin, unleavened wafer similar to the altar bread in the Roman Catholic Church. It is stamped with the figures of the Godchild, the blessed Mary, and the holy angels. The wafer is known as the bread of love and is often sent by mail to the absent members of the family.
The dinner itself differs from other evening meals in that the number of courses is fixed at seven, nine or eleven. According to myth, in no case must there be an odd number of people at the table, otherwise it is said that some of the feasters would not live to see another Christmas. A lighted candle in the windows symbolizes the hope that the Godchild, in the form of a stranger, may come to share the Wigilia and an extra place is set at the table for the unexpected guest. This belief stems from the ancient Polish adage, "A guest in the home is God in the home."
The Wigilia is a meatless meal, no doubt the result of a long-time Church mandate that a strict fast and abstinence be observed on this day before Christmas. Although the Church laws have been revised and permit meat to be eaten on this day, the traditional meal remains meatless. Items that would normally be included in a traditional Wigilia menu include mushroom soup, boiled potatoes (kartofle), pickled herring (sledzie), fried fish, pierogi, beans and sauerkraut (groch i kapusta), a dried fruit compote, babka, platek, assorted pastries, nuts and candies.
After the meal the members of the family sing Polish Christmas Carols called the koledy while the children wait impatiently around the Christmas tree or choinka for the gifts to be exchanged.
Aside from the beautiful Wigilia, the Polish people have a number of other traditions that they practice throughout the Christmas season. Polish Christmas Carols or koledy are numerous and beautiful, especially when sung in Polish parishes at the Christmas Eve Mass. This Mass is called the Pasterka, which means the Shepherds Watch, and there is popular belief in Poland that while the congregation is praying, peace descends on the snow-clad, sleeping earth and that during that holy night, the humble companions of men - the domestic animals - assume voices. But only the innocent of heart may hear them.
"THE FESTIVAL OF STARS "
On Christmas Day the village streets are traversed by boys and girls singing carols, and carrying " SZOPKAS "— miniature stages telling the Nativity story.
Other boys, dressed in costumes depicting King Herod, Death, a Devil, an Angel, a Bishop, and strange beasts, are led by a Star Boy. The " Festival of the STAR " is brought to a close on January 6th, Three Kings Day, or in some regions of Poland on Candlemass Day, February 2nd.
Government and Economy Government
• president as a head of state
• The government structure centers on the Council of Ministers, led by a prime minister. The president appoints the cabinet according to the proposals of the prime minister, typically from the majority coalition in the Sejm.
• The president is elected by popular vote every five years. The current president is Bronisaw Komorowski.
• The current prime minister, Donald Tusk
• Polish voters elect a bicameral parliament consisting of a 460-member lower house (Sejm) and a 100-member Senate (Senat).
• The judicial branch plays an important role in decision-making. Its major institutions include the Supreme Court of the Republic of Poland (Sd Najwyszy); the Supreme Administrative Court of the Republic of Poland (Naczelny Sd Administracyjny); the Constitutional Tribunal of the Republic of Poland (Trybuna Konstytucyjny); and the State Tribunal of the Republic of Poland (Trybuna Stanu).
• Sejm also appoints the ombudsman or the Commissioner for Civil Rights Protection (Rzecznik Praw Obywatelskich) for a five-year term. The ombudsman has the duty of guarding the observance and implementation of the rights and liberties of Polish citizens and residents, of the law and of principles of community life and social justice.
Poland’s most important natural resources are hardcoal and lignite, copper, zinc and lead ores, silver, sulphur, salt, rock salt, building stone, natural gas and oil.
• Meat industry
• Dairy products
• polish beer ywiec, Lech, Warka, ubr, or Okocim
• vodka ubrówka, Chopin, Sobieski, Wyborowa, ytnia or Gorzka Zodkowa.