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Life Science Visual Prestation

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Elizabeth Stutzman

on 12 May 2017

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Transcript of Life Science Visual Prestation

LIFE SCIENCE VISUAL PRESENTAION: CHAPTER 22 CONTROL
22.2 REFLEXES
22.3 THE BRAIN
THE CEREBRUM, FRONTAL LOBE, PARIETAL LOBE, TEMPORAL LOBE, OCCIPITAL LOBE, CEREBELLUM, AND THE BRAIN STEM
Life Science Visual Presentation
Chapter 22 Control
22A THE NERVOUS SYSTEM
IN THIS SECTION, WE WILL LEARN ABOUT NEURONS AND NERVE IMPULSES, REFLEXES
REFLEXES ARE A VERY IMPORTANT ACTION AND ARE NOT TOO COMPLICATED. REFLEXES IN THE BODY ARE COTROLLED BY REFLEX ARCS. FOR EXAMPLE, IF YOU TOUCH A HOT PAN, THE NEURON ENDING YOUR FINGER CAN SENSE THE HEAT PRESENT. THIS SENSATION CAUSES IMPULSES TO TRAVEL THROUGH THE SENSORY NEURON TO THE SPINAL CORD. SENSORY NEURONS ARE FOR SENSING STIMULI AND CARRYING IMPULSES TO THE CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. THENM, ONCE THE IMPULSES FROM THE SENSORY NEURON REACH THE SPINAL CORD, THEY ARE PASSED TO AN INTERNEURON. INTERNEURONS ACT AS A GO-BETWEEN FOR THE SENSORY NEURON AND THE MOTER NEURON. ONCE
PLEASE KEEP ALL QUESTIONS UNTIL THE END. PAY ATTENTION FOR THERE WILL BE A KAHOOT AT END!!
THE NERVOUS SYSTEM IS COMPOSED OF SEVERAL DIFFERENT KINDS OF NEURONS AND NERVE CELLS. A NERVE IMPULSE TRAVELS ALONG THE CELL MEMBRANE. A NERVE PASSES ALONG THE MEMBRANE AT ABOUT 328 FEET PER SECOND! THEN, AFTER ALL HAS BEEN RESET, THE MEMBRANE IS READY FOR ANOTHER IMPULSE. NORMALLY AN IMPULSE BEGINS ALONG A DENDRITE, TRAVELS TO THE CELL BODY AND THEN MOVES ALONG THE AXON.THERE ARE PARTICULAR VESICLES CONTAIN A CHEMICAL CALLED NEURONTRANSMITTERS. WHEN A NERVE IMPULSE REACHES THE KNOB, THE TINY VESICLES RUSH TO THE MEMBRANE AND RELEASE THE NEUROTRANSMITTERS TO THE OUT SIDE OF THE CELL. THIS JUNCTION OF TWO NEURONS IS CALLED A SYNAPSE.
THE INTERNEURON RECEIVES THE IMPULSES FROM THE SENSORY NEURON, THE INTERNEURON TRANSFERS THEM TO THE MOTER NEURON. THE IMPULSES ARE TRAVELING ALONG THE MOTER NEURON, THEY MOVE AWAY FROM THE SPINAL CORD TOWARD A MUSCLE. MOTER NEURONS ARE RESPONSIBLE FOR MOVEMENT. ONCE THE MUSCLE RECEIVES THE IMPULSES, IT REACTS, AND PULLS YOUR FINGER AWAY FROM THE HOT PAN. THIS WHOLE REFLEX ARC ACTION ONLY TAKES A FRACTION OF A SECOND! THERE ARE MANY MORE DIFFERNET TPYES OF REFLEXES THAN THIS EXAMPLE.
THE CEREBRUM IS THE LARGEST PART OF THE BRAIN. IT IS DIVIDED INTO TWO DIFFERENT HEMISPHERES OR HALVES. A THICK LAYER OF WHITE FIBER JOIN THE TWO HEMISPHERES TOGETHER. THE OUTER LAYER OF THE CEREBRUM IS CONTROLS CONCIOUS ACTIVITES. ITS COLOR IS A GREYISH RED. THE GREY IS THE NEURONS AND THE RED IS THE BLOOD THAT NOURISHES THE BRAIN. DEEP FOLDS DIVIDE THE HEMISPHERES INTO FOUR SECTIONS CALLED LOBES. EACH LOBE IS RESPOSIBLE FOR DIFFERENT THINGS.
THE FRONTAL LOBE IS RESPONSIBLE FOR CONTROL OF MOVEMENTS AND CONCIOUSNESS. YOUR AWARENESS OF WHAT IS HAPPENING, YOUR PERSONALITY, YOUR ABITLTY TO COMMUNICATE, AND YOURT ABLILITY TO REASON AREALL FUNCTIONS OF THE FRONTAL LOBE.
THE PARIETAL LOBE IS BEHIND THE FRONTAL LOBE. IT CONROLS SENSATIONS LIKE PAIN, PRESSURE, TEMPERATURE, TOUCH AND A PART OF TASTE.
THE TEMPORAL LOBE IS UNDER THE PARIETAL LOBE. IT IS IN THE AREA OF YOUR TEMPLES. THEY RECEIVE SOUND WAVES FROM YOUR EARS AND INTERPRET THEM AS SOUND. THEY ALSO HELP REMEMBER SOUNDS AND ARE INVOLVED WITH A PART OF SMELL.
THE OCCIPITAL LOBE IS IN THER BACK OF THE CEREBRUM. IT CONTROL VISION, AND REMEMBERING THINGS YOU SEE.
THE CEREBELLUM IS THE SECOND LARGEST PART OF THE BRAIN. IT CONTROLS COORDINATION. IT ALSO HELPS MAINTAIN YOUR POSTURE AND BALANCE AND SENDS IMPULSES TO YOUR CEREBRUM REGARDING YOUR BODY POSTURE.
THE BRAIN STEM IS BELOW THE CEREBRUM AND IN FRONT OF THE CEREBELLUM. IT CONTROLS BREATHING, HEARTBEAT, BLOOD PRESSURE, COUGHING, SNEEZING AND SWOLLOWING. IT ALSO HELPS WITH BALANCE AND POSTURE.
22.4 THE SPINAL CORD
THE SPINAL CORD IS CONTINUOUS OF THE BRAIN STEM AND EXTENDS DOWN THE BACK. AN ADULT SPINAL CORD IS ABOUT 16.5 TO 18 INCHES LONG. IT RELAYS IMPULSES BETWEEN YOUR BRAIN AND THE REST OF YOUR BODY.
22.5 THE EYE
THE ANATOMY OF THE EYE HAS 3 MAIN LAYERS. THE SCLERA, THE CHOROID, AND THE RETINA. THE SCLERA IS THE WHITE PART OF THE EYE AND HELPS MAINTAIN THE YES SHAPE. IT DOESN' T LET LIGHT IN. THE CHOROID IS THE MIDDLE LAYER OF THE EYE AND IT CONTAINS A LOT OF BLOOD. THE COLORED AREA OF THE EYE IS CALLED THE IRIS. IT IS ANTERIOR TO THE CHOROID. THE BLACK SPOT IS THE PUPIL. IT IS AN OPENING TO LET LIGHT IN. THE RETINA IS THE INNER LAYER OF THE EYE THAT STARTS ALONG THE SIDES OF THE LENS AND CONTINUES AROUND TO THE BACK OF THE EYE.
THE CHAMBERS OF THE EYE
THERE ARE TWO CHAMBERS OF THE EYE, THE AQUEOUS HUMOR AND THE VITREOUS HUMOR. THE AQEOUS HUMOR: THERE IS A CHAMBER BETWEEN THE CORNEA AND THE LENS FILLED WITH A CLEAR FLUID CALLED THE AQEOUS HUMOR. NUTRIENTS FROM THE AQEOUS HUMOR PROVIDE ENERGY FOR THE CELL IN THE CORNEA. THE VITREOUS HUMOR: THE CHAMBER BEHIND THE LENS IS FILLED WITH THE CLEAR, JELLYLIKE VITREOUS HUMOR WHICH KEEPS THE EYEBALL ROUND.
22.6 THE EAR
THE EAR IS COMPOSED OF 3 BASIC REGOINS, THE OUTER EAR, THE MIDDLE EAR AND THE INNER EAR. THE OUTER EAR CONSISTS OF A FLAP THAT COLLECTS SOUND WAVES, THE EAR CANAL, THROUGH WHICH SOUND WAVES TRAVEL FURTHUR INTO THE EAR, AND THE EARDRUM. THE EAR DRUM STREACHES OVER THE OPENING OF THE MIDDLE EAR. WHEN SOUND WAVES HIT THE EAR DRUM IT VIBRATES. THIE MIDDLE EAR CONSISTS OF AIR ON 3 BONES, THE HAMMER, THE ANVIL, AND THE STIRRUP. THE HAMMER IS ATTACHED TO THE EAR DRUM AND THE ANVIL IS ATTACHED TO THE HAMMER AND THE STIRRUP IS ATTCHED TO THE ANVIL. AS THE EAR DRUM MOVES, SO DO THE BONES. THE STIRRUP PASSES THE VIBRATION TO THE INNER EAR. THE SOUND WAVES MOVE THROUGHT THE EUSTATION TUBE, AND THEN THROUGH THE CHOCLEA. THE HAIRS IN THE CHOCLEA SEND THE IMPULSE TO THE BRAIN WHERE IT INTERPRETS IT AS SOUND.
22.7 THE NOSE, TONGUE, AND SKIN
THE NOSE ALLOWS US TO SMELL ODORS IN THE AIR. YOU USE YOUR NOSE TO BREATH AND SMELL. SMELLING IS ALSO IMPORTANT FOR TASTE. THE TONGUE IS USED FOR CHEWING, SPEAKING, SWALLOWING, AND TASTING. THE TONGUE HAS MANY TASTE BUDS THAT ALLOW US TO TASTE. THE SKIN IS USED FOR TOUCH, PAIN, PRESSURE, AND SENSEING HEAT OR COLD. THSES ARE UST FIVE SENSES, WE HAVE MANY MORE. NOT JUST FIVE.
22.8 HORMONES
A HORMONE IS A CHEMICAL MESSENGER MADE IN AN ENDOCRINE GLAND AND CARRIED BY BLOOD. HORMONES CAUSE THE START AND STOP OF GROWTH. HORMONES ARE HIGHLY SPECIFIC. BECAUSE HORMONES TRAVEL VIA BLOOD, THEY HAVE A SLOWER EFFECT ON THE HUMAN BODY THAN THE NERVOUS SYSTEM. GOD HAS MADE THE HORMONE VERY COMPLEX. THERE ARE MANY DIFFERENT HORMONES AND THEY ALL COME FROM DIFFERENT PLACES.
22.9 THE ENDOCRINE GLANDS
THE PANCREAS, THE PITUITARY GLAND, THE ADRENAL GLADS, AND THE THYROID GLAND
THE PITUITARY GLAND IS THE MASTER GLND OF THE BODY. IT DOLES OUT THE MOJORITY OF THE HORMONES. IT SENDS HORMONES TO THE REPRODUCTIVE ORGANS TO START PUBERTY. IT ALSO CONTROLS GROWTH. THE PANCREAS CONTROLS INSULIN AND THE INSULIN REGULATES BLOOD SUGAR. IF YOUR BLOOD SUAGR IS TOO LOW TOO MUCH, YOU MIGHT HAVE HYPOGLYCEMIA. IF IT IS TOO HIGH TO MUCH, YOU MIGHT HAVE HYPERGLYCEMIA. IF YOU HAVE BOTH OF THESE, YOU GET DIABETES MELLITUS, OT TYPE 1 DIABETES. TYPE 2 OCCURS WHEN YOUR CELLS DONT KNOW HWTA TO DO WITH THE INSULIN AND REJECT IT.
THE ARENAL GLANDS SIT ATOP THE KIDNEYS. THEY ARE ALSO CALLED "THE GLANDS OF EMERGENCY". THEY PRODUCE THE HORMONE CALLED EPINEPHRINE. EPINEPHRINE IS THE PREPARATION FOR EMERGENCY. THIS CHEMICAL IS RELEASED WHEN YOU FEEL SCARED, HAPPY, NERVOUS AND MANY MORE FEELINGS. IT CUASES "THE FLIGHT OR FIGHT" REACTION. EPINEPHRINE IS ALSO RELEASED WHEN YOUR STRESSED. THE THROID GLAND IS LOACTED IN THE TROAT. IT CONTROLS THE BODY METABOLISM. IF A PERSON DOE NOT GET ENOGHT IODINE IN HIS DEIT, THEN THEIR THYROID WILL NOT PRODUCE THYROXINE.
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