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Confucianism

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on 19 October 2014

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Transcript of Confucianism

280 BCE
485 CE
2014 CE
1250 CE
Confucianism
The Zhou Dynasty
The Forbidden City
Cao Dai
Nationalistic Vietnam religion
Blends religions:
Confucianism
Daoism
Buddhism
Catholicism
The Western Zhou Period
1045 - 770 BCE
The Spring and Autumn Period
770-476 BCE
The Warring States Period
Overthrew the Shang
Early times were peaceful
476-221 BCE
Zhou dynasty was split into various states
Some states started competing with each other for power
Emergence of the 100 Schools of Thought
1045 BCE - 476 BCE
Confucius Lives
States fought even more
Eventually ended with the Qin unifying China
September 28, 551 BCE - March 9, 479 BCE
Kong Fuzi
Near present-day town of Qufu
Now celebrated as Teacher's Day
Confucianism is Founded!
Confucianism in the World Today
2014 CE
520 BCE
Warring Periods: Ancient China
Founder: Confucius, born 551 BCE







Originated in China
Spread to various countries in East Asia
The World
Influence in General
China
North Korea (traditionally Buddhist and Confucianist, now unknown)
South Korea
Japan
Malaysia (around 1.3% sharing with other traditional Chinese religions)
Singapore
Taiwan
Vietnam
Indonesia (less than 0.9%)
2008: 6,516,790 Confucians
2008: found only in 16 countries
Around 0.1% of the world’s total population

Main Principles
Influence in Politics
No main deities/gods
No teachings about afterlife
Philosophy
Not monotheistic/polytheistic/henotheistic
Elite = Exemplary conduct
Basis of elite status: Learning
Best/Ideal rulers
Welfare of people
Best interests of society
Right to rebel
Hierarchical social order & Five Relationships
Human nature = Good
Influence in Daily Life
Respect to elders
Patriarchy
Honorifics and phrases showing respect
Family stability
Seniority system
Strong education system
Less unethical behavior (less danger)
1926 CE
The Forbidden City
Construction started in 1406 CE
Direction of Emperor Yongle of the Ming Dynasty
Finished in 1420 CE
Considered as the largest and the most important palace in China
Uses traditional Chinese architecture
Reflects Confucian values
Features
Primarily gold color
2,350,000 square feet
9,999 rooms
10 ft high walls
Moat
Observation towers
3 halls
Tian’anmen Square (outside)
Confucius's Influence
Names of the City mainly include:
Benevolence
Harmony
Balance
Stability
Room assignments according to hierarchy
Art and Architecture
Painting: The Three Patriarchs
14th - 15th Century
Confucius Confucianism
Lao Zi Daoism
Buddha Buddhism
The most famous by Zen priest Josetsu
Depicts the founders of three main belief systems of East Asia
Painting: The Six Gentlemen
13th - 14th Century
Depicts six trees:
pine
cypress
camphor
Chinese scholar tree
phoebe
elm
Represents Confucian symbols of moral integrity
Room Assignments
Superior
Inferior
center
north
east
front
sides
south
west
back
Confucian Temples
Temples built to honor Confucius and his ideology
Visit to offer sacrifices
Emperors even visit his home personally
Site for festivals
1045 BCE
Confucianism in the U.S.
Confucian Holidays
Chinese New Year
Lunar calendar
January - February
February 19, 2015
*Not particularly Confucian, but traditional Chinese
Confucius's Birthday
Recognized as Teacher's Day
China in the process of moving Teacher's Day (9/10) to Confucius's birthday
Official in Taiwan
September 28
Qufu International Confucius Festival
September 26 - October 10
Celebrated in Qufu (Confucius's birthplace)
Chongmyo Taeje
Also known as Royal Shrine Rite
First Sunday of May
Takes place in Seoul, Korea
Honors kings and queens of Joseon Dynasty
Demonstrates ancestral respect
Ching Ming or Qingming Festival
Also known as Ancestor’s Day or Tomb Sweeping Day
Celebrated April 4th or 5th, depending on 107 days after start of winter
Food
No official foods
Confucius emphasized the importance of abstention and quality of food
Some dishes approved by Confucius, ex.) “Eight Immortals Crossing the Sea Gamboling Around the Arhat"
“Eight Immortals Crossing the Sea Gamboling Around the Arhat”
Often associated with Confucius
Recipe:
Ingredients:
1. Cooked Chicken breast 300g
2. Soaked shark fin 100g
3. Sea cucumber 100g
4. Abalone 100g
5. Fishbone 100g*
6. Fish maw 100g**
7. Shrimp 100g
8. Ham 100g
9. Asparagus 50g
10. Fish meat (white fish, preferably Chinese white croaker) 250g
11. Cooking wine 50g
12. Some chicken broth, some ginger, leaves of greens, and some cooked lard.
http://chinesefood.about.com/library/weekly/aa072800a.htm
Clothing
Stressed the importance of self-presentation
Little influence on clothes
Confucius himself often depicted wearing "shenyi"
Han Dynasty wore "hanfu"
Comparative Belief Systems
Buddhism
Neither center around the worshiping of gods or deities
Both were founded by teachers who wanted to promote kindness and peace among men
Teachers didn't want their students to take everything they said for granted, rather test things and learn for themselves
Both founded in eastern Asia around 600 BCE
Buddhism is a religion, while Confucianism is a philosophy
Confucianism was founded to create peace during a war period, but Buddhism was not
Confucianism strives for the ideal government, while Buddhism focuses on harmony between people


Judaism
Both believe that people should be kind to each other; in Confucianism this means family first, but in Judaism everyone is equally important
Confucianism does not believe in gods, while Judaism does--Hashem
Confucianism strives for the ideal government, while Judaism focuses on worshiping Hashem
2008: 0 Confucians not only in the U.S., but also in North America
Religious Texts
Analects
-Confucius
The Book of Rituals
-Ta Hs-eh
The Doctrine of the Mean-Chung Yung
Western Inscription-Chang Tsai
The Mencius-Mencius
Inquiry on the Great Learning-Wang Yang-ming
Wujing -Includes 5 books
Religion, Philosophy, or
Ideology
Philosophy and ideology
Not a religion - no gods or afterlife
Ideology - Confucius's teachings influenced government and policies in every country
Briefly forbidden during Qin dynasty, Han Wudi of Han dynasty used principals of Confucianism as foundation for his government, laws, and ethics
Formally became state ideology under Han Wudi’s ruling
Also philosophy - Confucius sought to restore order and create a society with social and moral equality
The Analects
Much influence in the past
Han Dynasty
Little influence today
Democracy vs. dynasty/emperor
Dated 890 CE

Recovered: Archaeological dig at Dunhuang in the Western desert regions of China

Work of Confucius' teachings recorded by his disciples

Presents work of Confucius & his disciples, describes Confucius, and recounts his life
Works Cited
Impact Over Course of World History
Schools of Thought
Confucianism: 5th & 6th centuries B.C.

Mencius: 4th century B.C.

Xunzi: 3rd century B.C.

Dong Zhongshu: 179-104 B.C.

Song Confucianism: 960-1279

Ming Confucianism: 1368-1644

Korean Confucianism

Qing Confucianism
Confucius
Teachings of Confucius

5th & 6th centuries B.C.E.

Split into 8 schools
after death of Confucius
Mencius
4th century B.C.E.
Student of Confucius
Used Confucian ideals
Human nature = Good
Those who follow Confucian ideals:
Not corrupted by riches
Conquered by power
Not affected by poverty
Xunzi
3rd century B.C.E.
Opposite stance of Muncius
Human nature = Evil
Education important
Need for:
Authority
Social structure
Scholastic work
(Information)
Symbols
Water Symbol
Represents source of life in Chinese philosophy
Yin Yang Symbol
Mostly associated with Taoism, also related with Confucianism
Symbolizes balance in nature between opposing forces
Introduced the importance of ethics and respect
Made education a priority (educated are the highest in society)
Noted certain relationships and how to manage one's own role in the relationship
Established that the ruler should care more about his people than himself and other ways to successfully govern
Introduced the right to rebel (selfish rulers give the people the right to rebel)
Not necessarily followed by all belief systems, but is evident in moral codes for people throughout the world
Has also led philosophical beliefs and certain traditions for many people in different countries, especially those in East Asia
Confucianism Symbol
Used during Chinese wedding ceremonies
Represents total righteousness and harmony
Main Teachers in Confucianism
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en_madeinchina/2005-10/21/content_74813.htm>.
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Agency, 2013. Web. 28 Sept. 2014. <https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/fields/2122.html>.
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Goucher, Candice, Charles LeGuin, and Linda Walton. "Ideas and Power: Goddesses, God-Kings, and Sages." In the Balance: Themes in World History. Boston, MA:
McGraw-Hill, 1998. 62-145. Print.
Goucher, Candice, Charles LeGuin, and Linda Walton. "Ideas and Power: Goddesses, God-Kings, and Sages." In the Balance: Themes in World History. Boston, MA:
McGraw-Hill, 1998. 74-162. Print.
"Jongmyodaeje (Royal Ancestral Memorial Rite of Joseon) (종묘대제)."Imagine Your Korea Visit Korea. Korea Tourism Organization, n.d. Web. 29 Sept. 2014. <http://
english.visitkorea.or.kr/enu/SI/SI_EN_3_2_1.jsp?cid=905733>.
Mack, Lauren. "Confucius: Happy Birthday, Confucius." About.com. About.com, 2014. Web. 29 Sept. 2014. <http://chineseculture.about.com/od/chinesefestivals/a/
Happy-Birthday-Confucius.htm>.
Mack, Lauren. "Tomb Sweeping Festival." About.com. About.com, 2014. Web. 28 Sept. 2014. <http://chineseculture.about.com/od/chinesefestivals/a/Tomb-Sweeping-
Day.htm>.
Neubauer, Miranda. "Scholar from China Compares Judaism, Confucianism."International Center for Ethics, Justice, and Public Life. Brandeis University, 30 Sept. 2008.
Web. 29 Sept. 2014. <http://www.brandeis.edu/ethics/news/2008/2008.Sept.30.html>.
Pecorino, Philip A., Ph.D. "Chapter 2. Religions of the World, Section 5. Confucianism." Philosophy of Religion. N.p.: n.p., n.d. N. pag.Philosophy of Religion. Philip A.
Pecorino. Web. 28 Sept. 2014. <http://www.qcc.cuny.edu/socialSciences/ppecorino/PHIL_of_RELIGION_TEXT/CHAPTER_2_RELIGIONS/Confucianism.htm>.
"Religion." Korea.net. Korean Culture and Information Service, n.d. Web. 28 Sept. 2014. <http://www.korea.net/AboutKorea/Korean-Life/Religion>.
Riegel, Jeffrey. "Confucius." The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Ed. Edward N. Zalta. Summer 2013 ed. N.p.: n.p., 2013. N. pag. Stanford University. Stanford
University, 03 July 2002. Web. 28 Sept. 2014. <http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/confucius/#ConPol>.
Schumacher, Mark. "Confucius and Confucianism in Japanese Art and Culture." Japanese Buddhist Statuary. Mark Schumacher, 2014. Web. 29 Sept. 2014.
"The Origin of Confucianism." CHOSON KOREA. The Korea Society, 2013. Web. 29 Sept. 2014. <http://chosonkorea.org/index.php/confucianism/east-asia-in-the-
context-of-confucianism/the-origin-of-confucianism>.
"The Origins of Buddhism." Asia Society. Asia Society, 2014. Web. 26 Sept. 2014. <http://asiasociety.org/origins-buddhism>.
"Traditional Han Chinese Clothing, Hanfu." Travel China Guide. Travel China Guide, n.d. Web. 29 Sept. 2014. <http://www.travelchinaguide.com/intro/clothing/hanfu/>.
Turner, Darrell J. "Worldwide Adherents of All Religions." Encyclopedia Britannica Online. Encyclopedia Britannica, 2010. Web. 28 Sept. 2014. <http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/1731588/Religion-Year-In-Review-2010/298437/Worldwide-Adherents-of-All-Religions>.
Van Hinsbergh, Gavin. "The Spring and Autumn Period (770-476 BC)."ChinaHighlights. China Highlights, 28 Feb. 2014. Web. 29 Sept. 2014. <http://
www.chinahighlights.com/travelguide/chinese-history/spring-and-autumn-period.htm>.
Xinhua. "Plan to Name Confucius's Birthday Teacher's Day Stirs Debate."People's Daily Online. People's Daily, 6 Sept. 2013. Web. 29 Sept. 2014. <http://
english.peopledaily.com.cn/203691/8392558.html>.
Yu, Ronghe, and Rhonda Parkinson. "Confucian Dish - The Eight Immortals Crossing the Sea Gambolling Around the Arhat." About.com Chinese Food. About.com, n.d.
Web. 29 Sept. 2014. <http://chinesefood.about.com/library/weekly/aa072800a.htm>.
Zhou, Ruru. "Qufu International Confucius Festival." ChinaHighlights. China Highlights, 23 Apr. 2014. Web. 29 Sept. 2014. <http://www.chinahighlights.com/festivals/
qufu-international-confucius-festival.htm>.
The Five Relationships
1. Ruler and Subject
2. Father and Son
3. Husband and Wife
4. Elder Brother and Younger Brother
5. Friend and Friend
Work Cited
(Pictures)
"3rd Awarding Ceremony of Confucius Prize for Literacy held in Qufu." - Lifestyle News. N.p., n.d. Web. 25 Sept. 2014. <http://english.sina.com/life/p/2008/0927/188979.html>.
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“If the people be led by laws, and uniformity among them be sought by punishments, they will try to escape punishment and have no sense of shame. If they are led by virtue, and uniformity sought among them through the practice of ritual propriety, they will possess a sense of shame and come to you of their own accord” (Lunyu 2.3)
Quote from
The Analects
Taiwan
Malaysia
Singapore

Indonesia
North Korea
South Korea
China



Vietnam
Japan
Full transcript