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Are Electric Cars Bad for the Environment?

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by

James Winfield

on 3 April 2013

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Transcript of Are Electric Cars Bad for the Environment?

An Environmental, Economical and Political Analysis of Electric Vehicles Summary - MATLAB Model Policy and Scenario's Briefly talk about policy for GHG (Green House Gas) Reduction:
Climate Change Act 2008 Since electric vehicles run on electricity, the effect on the environment from electricity generation is crucial to understanding the environmental effects from electric vehicles.
Finding out the emission factors and amount of each component of electricity generation
Focusing on UK electricity demand and mix (current and future) Environmental Effects from Electricity Generation Methodology for emission calculation of internal combustion engine vehicles

Emissions = E/l * l/km * km

Fuel economy (l/km) varies with model of vehicle and the behaviour of drivers, and fuel economy for a given model in different countries is also different (speed limit).
Data from Department of Transport (UK) and Department of Energy (US)
Emission factor of fuel (E/l) can be found for a specific fuel

Other comparisons with electric vehicles
Environmental effect from manufacturing. (see battery)
Capital expenditure (see economics)
Infrastructure Emissions from Internal Combustion Engine Vehicles Other Considerations:
Non-GHG (Green House Gas) environmental effects are not taken into account in the GUI (Graphic User Interface).
Nuclear Power, Water and land Pollution Source: DECC Life Cycle Basic types of batteries used for electrical vehicles:
Lead-acid
Nickel metal hydride (NiMH)
Lithium ion Criteria to choose which one is the best:
Life cycle
Range
Charging time
Cost
Environmental impacts
Recycling percentage of materials
Cost to recycle
Infrastructure for recycling Basic Criteria Comparison Graph Lithium-ion Battery Manufacturing For the total environmental impact of e-mobility to be appreciated, the processes outwith the operational stage in the vehicle's life cycle must be considered.
These include manufacturing and disposal/recycling.
Air pollution benefit in urban areas
Toxicity from manufacturing and material extraction Intiatives to Support EV's:
Green Cars Intiative
CO2 regulation for cars/commercial vehicles
Supercredits
Purchase tax/subsidies
Fuel tax (smart metering technology)
Road tax (road tax excemption)
Excemption of congestion charges
Free parking
Subsidies for charging points - (Plugged-in-place scheme) Other policies:
Raw Material Intiative
End of Life Vehicle Directive
Grid infrastructure - Smart grid / smart metering Rebound Effect Infrastructure Residential Charging:
Requirements

Slow Charging

Fast Charging The EV Network
8,500 to have been funded by the government’s £30 million plug-in places scheme Better Place An infrastructure to improve the expansion of the EV network.
Battery Switch Stations
Charging Spots
Smart Energy Management How much is it going to cost you? Capital Costs:
Purchasing your electric vehicle
Your electric vehicle can cost up to 60% more than the internal combustion engine equivalent
UK Plug-In Car Grant:
£5,000 off your car
No Car Tax or congestion charge
Only 10 cars qualify

Running Costs:
The EV will cost you 2.5 times cheaper to run than your ICE on electricity charged from your own home,

Depreciation Value:
Unfortunately due to the uncertainty of the battery life and the small market, the depreciation values for electric vehicles and plug-in hybrid vehicles are high Agenda MATLAB and electricity generation - Weike and Sam S-D
Life Cycle - Filippos and Jed
Infrastructure and Economics - Sam T
Policy and Scenarios - James The story so far What is next? Week 7-Begin coding MATLAB script with current information and research, continue with writing report
Week 8-Create GUI with MATLAB script and begin experimentation with case studies of different vehicles, continue with writing report with feed back from presentations
Week 9- By 16th November the first draft shall be written
Week 10-Evaluation and critical editing of each others sections. By the end of week 10 the finished product ready for printing and binding. Any Questions? Improvements:
Range
Charging Time
Life Cycle
Energy Density
Power Density
New Materials:
Carbon Nanotubes Tier 1 - assemble battery, supply automaker

Tier 2 - make cell components and electronics

Tier 3 - provide basic materials

- Advanced EV industry depends on close operation between T1 and car companies, highly automated, high volume production Manufacturing Cost Electric vehicles could decrease our oil dependency

Lithium dependence in South America, not ideal diplomatic relations

Chinese trade restrictions on rare earth metals

Find new materials or decrease level of production? Social Factors Are Electrical Vehicles Bad for the Environment? Future of Car Batteries Li-ion Battery Industry Structure Lithium-ion Battery Greenhouse Gases and Air Pollution Emissions- electrical vehicles create less emissions then internal combustion engines
Life Cycle- as long as technology improves the cost and emissions will decrease and the life expectancy will increase.
Infrastructure- The more improvements to the developing infrastructure of electrical vehicles, the cheaper they will ultimately cost.
Policy - renewable energy policy needs to run along side EV supporting policy Key Findings
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