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Soccer Throw-In

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by

Nathan McNeilly

on 6 April 2014

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Transcript of Soccer Throw-In

Soccer Throw-In
Biomechanical Purpose of Movement

To throw a soccer ball into the game, in the correct direction with as much force and accuracy as possible, and releasing the ball at an optimal angle.
Plane of Motion/Axis of Rotation of the Whole Body
Plane of Motion/Axis of Rotation of Joints
Muscle and Joint Action
Elbow Extension: Triceps Brachii

Shoulder Extension: Latissimus Dorsi, Deltoid and Pectoralis Major

Ulnar Flexion: Flexor Carpi Ulnaris, Extensor Carpi Ulnaris

Joints Involved in a Soccer Throw-In
Shoulder (Glenohumeral): Ball and Socket Joint (Flexion/Extension)

Elbow (Humeralulnar): Hinge Joint (Flexion/Extension)

Wrist (Radiocarpal): Condyloid Joint (Flexion/Extension)

5 Phases of Movement
Phase 1: Preliminary Movements
Standing with feet shoulder width apart facing the target.

Take a big breath in

Prepare for movement mentally

Have ball in hands
5 Phases of Movement
Arms are raised above head

Shoulders are flexed

Elbows are flexed

Muscles are tensed and ready for action
5 Phases of Movement
Phase 3: Force Producing Movement
Elbows go from flexion to extension

Muscles activated to produce force

Arms swing from behind the head to about 30° infront

5 Phases of Movement
Phase 4: Critical Instant
Releasing the ball from your hand when your elbows and shoulders are at an optimal angle
5 Phases of Movement
Phase 5: Follow Through
Arms continue to move forward

Elbows continue their extension until a relaxed position is reached

Shoulders continue their extension until they are almost flexed, in a relaxed position

The muscles of the upper back, chest and arms all work synchronously to slow down the movement

This prevents Injury
The Problem

The Problem that occurs in the throw-in is that the player releases the ball too early.
This is a problem because the player is not using their joints to the full extent, which results in a loss of speed, force, and acceleration of the ball.
Body Segments Where Error Occurs
The error in this motion occurs in the shoulders, elbows, wrists, and hands.

Shoulders: not extending to the optimal angle of release, and only reach that angle after the elbows and hands do, and the ball is released

Elbows: extend before the shoulders reach the optimal angle of release

Hands: release the ball as the elbows extend, but before the shoulders extend to the optimal angle
Elbow: Extension along the Sagittal Plane/Transverse Axis

Shoulder: Starts flexed, extends along the Sagittal Plane/Transverse Axis

Wrist: Slight ulnar flexion along the Sagittal Plane/Transverse Axis

Forearm: Pronated on the Transverse Plane/Horizontal Axis
Phase 2: Backswing/Recovery Movements
The whole movement of the action occurs in the Sagittal Plane, about the Transverse Axis
The Center of Gravity moves up slightly when arms are raised and moves down and slightly forward when performing the throw-in.

Biomechanical Principles Violated
The problem violates 2 of the Biomechanical Principles.
The first principle violated is the
summation of joint forces.
The second principle violated is
the continuity of joint forces
Principle of Summation of Joint Forces
This principle is violated because the joints involved in the throw-in are not used effectively which results in a loss of force.
The shoulders are not used effectively because the ball is released before they have rotated to the optimum release angle.
The elbows are not used effectively because they fully extend before the arms reach the optimum release angle and the wrists flex (ulnar flexion) before the optimum angle.
Principle of Continuity of Joint Forces
This principle is violated because the joints are not being used in the correct order.
The appropriate order is for the shoulders to extend until they are at the optimum release angle which is around 30 degrees. Once the shoulders reach this absolute angle, the elbows are ideally supposed to reach full extension at the exact same time as the wrists reach ulnar flexion.
At this exact moment the player should release their grip to generate the most speed, accuracy, and force.
Progression and Suggestion for Skill Improvements
Once identifying the principles violated I would start off by letting the player know where exactly the errors occur.
I would then suggest that the player release the ball later on in the movement in order to give the ball a farther trajectory with more speed and accuracy.
I would follow up my suggestion with drills that allow the player to repeat the movement required and become familiar with the corrected form.
Drills
To start off, I would have the player watch video of themselves in slow motion so that they can see what exactly they have done wrong.
I would then have the player practice the motion without a ball and focus on releasing the ball with the arms in front of the head and close to the optimum angle.
I would then have the player practice throwing a ball at a target against the wall from 5-8 feet away. This drill would focus on the accuracy of the throw.
I would then progress to having the player throw the ball at multiple targets so that he/she gets used to delivering different trajectories. This drill is necessarry because the player may have to throw at a teammates feet, but also at times at their head. The optimum release angle will vary from target to target.
Approach to Corrections as a Physical Educator
• My approach to this problem as a physical educator would be to reward the person’s success with encouragement but also to challenge them to increase both accuracy and distance of the throw (the sandwich principle). In other words, when they hit the target on the wall I would congratulate them and then provide them with advice concerning when to release the ball and at what angle to release in order to get maximum distance.
Justification of Exercises and Drills
These drills will help provide control at the release of the ball

By providing a close target, this will show the athlete the flight time and path of the ball

Having the athlete watch a video of themself perform the skill incorrectly will allow visual learners to understand better

Repetition of the drills will allow for muscle memory to take over

Accuracy of throw-in will also increase
Drills Continued....
After successfuly hitting whatever target is required in repition, the player would then stand farther back from the wall and repeat the drill. Repitition in this drill would increase muscle memory. This would now incorporate force with accuracy.
The final progression would be to bring the player outside to a field and have them throw the ball to whatever body part their teammates ask of them.
Method to Correcting Faults
The method I would use is the Sequential Method
By using this method, I would evaluate the entire performance and then break it up into sections.
The first section (first fault) is when the player doesn't extend their shoulders enough upon release which results in the ball going almost straight up.
The second section (second fault) is when the player extends their elbows and ulnar flexes their wrists too soon.
The first fault causes the second fault and so it receives priority and should be focused on when coaching the technique.
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