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Transcript of Mahatma Gandhi
Timeline Of Mahatma Gandhi's Life
Trip to South-Africa
Natal Indian Congress
Back to India
Second Boer War
Trip to London
Massacer of Amritsar
Boycott / Autobiography
Round-Table Conference (London)
Independence of India
5 Things Mahatma Gandhi Stood For
Women and their equal treatment
The separation of India from Britain
The Equal Treatment Of Minority's
Muslims and Their Beleifs
“You must be the change you want to see in the world.”
Gandhi became a leader of India's independence movement, organizing boycotts against British institutions in peaceful forms of civil disobedience
The Fighter For Freedom
Think about all the things you can do, say and chose. All the things you take for granted, because at one point those things were not available to everyone.
Because of a group of ignorant people, who believed that humans were not created equal, that some were born to rule others and abuse them.
Through this stood a man. A man who saw people past their color, gender and religion. Who was the first to stand yet the last to fight. A man who believed he could change the world. A man who did change the world:
Gandhi fought for human rights through nonviolent techniques. He opposed to unfair taxes levied on Indian workers and he strived to get Indians their voting rights. Gandhi started a campaign against injustice as well as constructive schemes to improve conditions.
He tried to meet all living beings and creations of nature with great respect and humility. He argued and fought for his convictions and aims using nonviolent means, and was always ready to compromise.
Mohandas Gandhi is considered the father of the Indian independence movement. Gandhi spent 20 years in South Africa working to fight discrimination.
It was there that he created his concept of Satyagraha, a non-violent way of protesting against injustices. While in India, Gandhi's obvious virtue, simplistic lifestyle, and minimal dress endeared him to the people. He spent his remaining years working diligently to both remove British rule from India as well as to better the lives of India's poorest classes.
Many civil rights leaders, including Martin Luther King Jr., used Gandhi's concept of non-violent protest as a model for their own struggles.
Mohandas Gandhi was the last child of his father (Karamchand Gandhi) and his father's fourth wife (Putlibai). Several members of his family worked for the government of the state.
Although generally an obedient child, at one point Gandhi experimented with eating meat, smoking, and a small amount of stealing -- all of which he later regretted.During his youth, Mohandas Gandhi was shy, soft-spoken, and only a mediocre student at school.
In May 1883, the 13-year-old Mohandas was married to 14-year-old Kasturbai Makhanji in an arranged child marriage, according to the custom of the region. In the process, he lost a year at school
In 1885, when Gandhi was 15, the couple's first child was born, but survived only a few days. Mohandas and Kasturba had four more children, all sons: Harilal, born in 1888; Manilal, born in 1892; Ramdas, born in 1897; and Devdas, born in 1900.
In 1888, Gandhi travelled to London, England, to study law at University College London, where he studied Indian law and jurisprudence and trained as a barrister at the Inner Temple. He had made a vow before leaving to his mother to stay away from meat, and alcohol.
Gandhi tried to adopt "English" customs, including taking dancing lessons. However, he could not appreciate the bland vegetarian food offered by his landlady and was frequently hungry until he found one of London's few vegetarian restaurants
Gandhi was 24 when he arrived in South Africa to work as a legal representative for the Muslim Indian Traders based in the city of Pretoria. He spent 21 years in South Africa, where he developed his political views, ethics and political leadership skills.
Gandhi was hoping to earn a little bit of money and to learn more about law, it was in South Africa that Gandhi transformed from a very quiet and shy man to a resilient and potent leader against discrimination. The beginning of this transformation occurred during a business trip taken shortly after his arrival in South Africa.
Gandhi had only been in South Africa for about a week when he was asked to take the long trip from Natal to Transvaal for his case. Railroad officials told Gandhi that he needed to transfer to the third-class passenger car. When Gandhi, who was holding first-class passenger tickets, refused to move, a policeman came and threw him off the train.
Gandhi faced the discrimination directed at all colored people. He was thrown off the train. He protested and was allowed on first class the next day. Traveling farther on by stagecoach, he was beaten by a driver for refusing to move to make room for a European passenger. He suffered other hardships on the journey as well, including being barred from several hotels. In another incident, the magistrate of a Durban court ordered Gandhi to remove his turban, which he refused to do.
These events were a turning point in Gandhi's life and shaped his social activism and awakened him to social injustice. After witnessing racism, prejudice and injustice against Indians in South Africa, Gandhi began to question his place in society and his people's standing in the British Empire.
The Natal Indian Congress was an organization that aimed to fight discrimination against Indians in South Africa. The Natal Indian Congress was started by Gandhi.
A constitution was put in place on 22 August 1894. During its formative years, the NIC introduced many early petitions for changes to proposed discriminatory legislation. It later allied itself with the African National Congress.
Gandhi returned to India permanently. He brought an international reputation as a leading Indian nationalist, theorist and organizer.
He was introduced to Indian issues, politics and the Indian people primarily by Gopal Krishna Gokhale. Gokhale was a key leader of the Congress Party best known for his restraint and moderation, and his insistence on working inside the system.
A crowd of non-violent protesters, along with Baishakhi pilgrims, had gathered in the Jallianwala Bagh garden in Amritsar, Punjab to protest the arrest of Mahatma and another man despite a curfew which had been recently declared.
On the orders of Brigadier-General Reginald Dyer, the army fired on the crowd for ten minutes, directing their bullets largely towards the few open gates through which people were trying to run out.
The dead numbered between 370 and 1,000, or possibly more. This brutality stunned the entire nation, resulting in a wrenching loss of faith of the general public in the intentions of Britain
Gandhi had the base to employ noncooperation, nonviolence and peaceful resistance as his weapons in the struggle against the British Raj.
The spark that ignited a national protest was overwhelming anger at the Amritsar massacre. Many Britons celebrated the action as needed to prevent another violent uprising similar.
He offered condolences to British civilian victims and condemning the riots which, after initial opposition in the party, was accepted following Gandhi's emotional speech advocating his principle that all violence was evil and could not be justified
Gandhi stayed out of active politics and, as such, the limelight for most of the 1920s. He focused instead on resolving the wedge between the Swaraj Party and the Indian National Congress, and expanding initiatives against untouchability, alcoholism, ignorance and poverty.
The Salt March, began with the Dandi March on 12 March 1930, and was an important part of the Indian independence movement. It was a direct action campaign of tax resistance and nonviolent protest against the British salt monopoly in colonial India, and triggered the wider Civil Disobedience Movement.
Quit India was a civil disobedience movement launched in India in August 1942 in response to Mohandas Gandhi's call for satyagraha.
The All-India Congress Committee proclaimed a mass protest demanding what Gandhi called "an orderly British withdrawal" from India. The call for determined, but passive resistance appears in his call to Do or Die, issued on 8 August at the Gowalia Tank Maidan in Mumbai on year 1942.
Thousands came to march and show their support and proclaim their want for a independent country:
The Partition of India led to the creation of the Dominion of Pakistan and the Union of India
The British finally agreed to give India the independence it had been asking for over 50 years, but under their own terms
Gandhi was on his way to address a prayer meeting, when his assassin, Nathuram Godse, fired three bullets from a Beretta 9 mm pistol into his chest at point-blank range.
Godse was a Hindu nationalist with links to the extremist Hindu Mahasabha, who held Gandhi guilty of favouring Pakistan and strongly opposed the doctrine of nonviolence. Godse and his co-conspirator were tried and executed in 1949.
The Life And Legacy Of Mahatma Gandhi
He not only achieved political rights for his countrymen, but fought also for social and economic equality.
Gandhi took Gokhale's liberal approach based on British Whiggish traditions and transformed it to make it look Indian
His wide popularity among both Hindus and Muslims made his leadership possible; he even convinced the extreme faction of Muslims to support peaceful noncooperation.
India had been asking for an entire country of their own to govern with their own rules but instead Britain created a Muslim State
Prior to his death, there had been five unsuccessful attempts to kill Gandhi, the first occurring in 1934.
There was no set date for Gandhi's funeral. He was ceramated over the course of a week. Some of his ashes were buried so people could pay their respects. He was 78 when he died.
"First they ignore you, then they laugh at you, then they fight you, then you win."
"Where there is love there is life."
"Happiness is when what you think, what you say, and what you do are in harmony."
"A man is but the product of his thoughts, what he thinks, he becomes."
"Live as if you were to die tomorrow. Learn as if you were to live forever."
"You must not lose faith in humanity. Humanity is an ocean; if a few drops of the ocean are dirty, the ocean does not become dirty."
"The weak can never forgive. Forgiveness is the attribute of the strong."
"I suppose leadership at one time meant muscles; but today it means getting along with people."
"In a gentle way, you can shake the world."
"It is health that is real wealth and not pieces of gold and silver."
"An error does not become truth by reason of multiplied propagation, nor does truth become error because nobody sees it."
The real ornament of woman is her character, her purity.
When I despair, I remember that all through history the ways of truth and love have always won. There have been tyrants, and murderers, and for a time they can seem invincible, but in the end they always fall. Think of it--always.