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# Special Relativity

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## Iris Katzir

on 2 June 2011

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#### Transcript of Special Relativity

Special Relativity
Amy Chang, Iris Katzir, and Jane Li Altering the rate at which things pass through time ("stretching" time). Only significant at speeds approaching lightspeed. General Theory of Relativity: Matter causes space to curve. The combination of space and time as it exists within the universe. The First Postulate:
All the laws of nature are the same in all uniformly moving frames of reference. The Second Postulate:
The speed of light in empty space will always have the same value regardless of the motion or the source of the motion of the observer. father of modern physics Example of Time Dilation: Twin Paradox Bibliography:

Hewitt, Paul G. Conceptual Physics Third Edition

http://archive.ncsa.illinois.edu/Cyberia/NumRel/Images/embeding.gif

http://www.pitt.edu/~jdnorton/teaching/HPS_0410/chapters/Special_relativity_basics/index.html The Time Dilation Equation: Time Dilation Albert Einstein 1879-1955 German born physicist
1921 Nobel Prize in Physics
On the Electrodynamics of Moving Bodies in 1905 "Relativity teaches us the connection between the different descriptions of one and the same reality." Space-Time Galileo Galilei Principle of Relativity:
The fundamental laws of physics are the same in all inertial frames, all uniform motion is relative, and that there is no absolute and well-defined state of rest. including both mechanics and electrodynamics Length Contraction Moving objects contract along direction of motion when viewed by outside observer
vertical length of objects do not change, only width does
only exists with relative speeds
alterations can only be seen in a frame of reference of the "observer" As relative speed increases, contraction in the direction of motion increases Special Theory of Relativity When something moves through space at constant velocity, the rate at which it passes through time changes. General Theory of Relativity Michelson-Morley experiment in 1887 to detect different speeds of light fails Inertial frame of reference is a frame of reference that describes space in a time independent manner. All inertial frames follow Newton's law of inertia. Hafele-Keating experiment succeeds Fourth Dimension Minkowski formulation: An object traveling at the speed of light has a space-time interval of zero: Albert Einstein believed that space and time existed only within the boundaries of the universe. Einstein believed that this explained how gravity worked in terms of space-time. Gravitation thus was not a force but a property, being able to bend light rays. Lorentz Factor Lorentz Factor http://www.pa.msu.edu/courses/2000spring/phy232/lectures/relativity/contraction.html http://www.pa.msu.edu/courses/2000spring/phy232/lectures/relativity/dilation.html Light Clock light clock works by ticking every time a light pulse is reflected back to the lower mirror time between ticks and tocks for the stationary clock is: Moving: Stationary:
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