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# Sound Waves

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## Aysha Ayub

on 22 February 2015

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#### Transcript of Sound Waves

What is a Sound Wave?
Watch the video below
From previous lectures, we know that amplitude corresponds to the maximum displacement of the wave from the equilibrium position
Amplitude affects the size of the vibrations of the particles in the medium
According to the Phet simulation, as amplitude increases, the sound becomes louder and as the amplitude decreases, the sound becomes quieter
How does Frequency Affect Sound Wave Speed?
Watch the video below
Sound Waves
Physics 101

How does Frequency Affect Sound?
How does Frequency Affect Sound?
How does Amplitude Affect Sound?
How does Amplitude Affect Sound?
therefore, frequency does not affect wave speed
At 506 Hz:
Speed=236 m/s
At 1000 Hz:
Speed=236 m/s
How does Amplitude Affect Sound Wave Speed?
At high amplitude
Speed = 236m/s
At low amplitude:
Speed = 236m/s
therefore, amplitude does not affect wave speed
What does Affect the Speed of Sound?
Sound wave speed depends on the properties of the medium which the wave travels through
The speed of a sound wave generally increases moving from gases to solids
The formula for calculating sound wave speed is:
B= bulk modulus (elastic properties of the medium)
p=density
Example
What is the speed of a sound wave traveling through water (20°C) where the bulk modulus of water is 2.2x10^9 N/m^2 and the density of water is 1000 kg/m^3?
Solution
In this question, we are given all the variables needed for finding the speed of the sound wave. Therefore, we can plug in the numbers into the equation below.
If we were not given all the variables, we need to solve for the unknown variables first. For example, if we were not given information about the bulk modulus but given the change in pressure Δp and the fractional change in volume ΔV/V, we can solve for B first using the equation below. After, we can plug the numbers back into the equation for speed (the one used on the previous slide).
Note that the negative sign in front is present in the equation since the sign of Δp is always different than the sign of ΔV/V.
Works Cited
Phet simulation
"Sound." PhET. University of Colorado, n.d. Web. 19 Feb. 2015. <http://phet.colorado.edu/en/simulation/sound>.
Physics 101 Textbook
Hawkes, Robert, Javed Iqbal, Firas Mansour, Marina Milner-Bolotin, and Peter Williams. Physics for Scientists and Engineers: An Interactive Approach. Vol. 1. Toronto: Nelson Education, 2014. Print.
Graphs
http://4.bp.blogspot.com/_hwnCNuE0Gqk/TUs5Dk4iQWI/AAAAAAAAAJ4/E2cKMSlh6kQ/s1600/sound.png
Other
"Pitch and Frequency." Pitch and Frequency. The Physics Classroom, n.d. Web. 11 Feb. 2015. <http://www.physicsclassroom.com/class/sound/Lesson-2/Pitch-and-Frequency>.
a sound wave is a longitudinal wave
it can move in three dimensions
a sound wave passes through a specific medium
the particles of the medium oscillate and create areas of low and high pressure
The particles of the medium in which the sound wave passes move back and forth at a certain frequency
The frequency of a wave is referred to as how often the particles in the medium vibrate as the wave passes through
Frequency is usually measured in Hertz
Frequency affects the speed of the vibrations of the particles
From the Phet simulation, it can be concluded that high frequencies correspond to high pitches and low frequencies correspond to low pitches
Speed = distance / time
Speed = distance / time
Full transcript