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Chapter 21: Absolute Monarch in Europe, 1500-1800

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Jacob Dixon

on 21 March 2011

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Transcript of Chapter 21: Absolute Monarch in Europe, 1500-1800

Section 1: Spain's Empire and European Absolutism A New Spanish Ruler In 1556, Philip II begins ruling Spain and its possessions Philip II's Empire
Philip seizes Portugal in 1580
Gold and silver from Americas make Spain extremely wealthy Defender of Catholicism
Spanish fleet helps defeat Ottomans at Lepanto in 1571 Golden Age of Spanish Art and Literature El Greco and Velazquez
El Greco uses unusual style to convey religious themes
Works of Velazquez show Spanish court life Don Quixote
In 1605, Don Quixote by Miguel de Cervantes is published
Novel marks birth of modern European novel The Spanish Empire Weakens
Inflation and Taxes
Inflation weakens Spain's economy
Taxes on lower class prevents development of middle class Making Spain's Enemies Rich
Philip declares bankruptcy three times due to weak economy The Dutch Revolt
Protestants in Netherlands win independence from Spain in 1579 The Independent Dutch Prosper Dutch Art
In 1600s, Netherlands becomes center of European art
Rembrandt and Vermeer are famous Dutch painters Dutch Trading Empire
Dutch merchants engage in world trade
Dutch have world's largest trading fleet
Dutch replace Italians as Europe's bankers Absolutism in Europe The Theory of Absolutism
Rulers want to be absolute monarchs- rulers with complete power
Believe in divine right- idea that monarchs represent God on earth Growing Power of Europe's Monarchs
Decline in church authority also increases power Crises Lead to Absolutism
Monarchs imposes order by increasing their own power Section 2: The Reign of Louis XIV Religious Wars and Power Struggles Henry of Navarre
Henry ascends to French throne in 1589 and adopts Catholicism
Issues Edict of Nantes- a declaration of religious toleration Louis XIII and Cardinal Richelieu
Increases power of the Bourbons by limiting Huguenots' freedom
Also weakens power of the nobility Writers Turn Toward Skepticism A New Attitude
Skepticism- the idea that nothing can be known for certain
Montaigne and Descartes
Montaigne explores ideas about life's meaning on essays
Descartes uses observation and reason to create new philosophy Louis XIV Comes to Power A New French Ruler
Louis XIV- the most powerful ruler in French history
Louis, the Boy King
Hatred of Mazarin- young Louis's minister-leads to riots Louis Weakens the Nobles' Authoriy
Louis takes control in 1661
Appoints intendants- government agents-to collect taxes
Economics Growth
Jean Baptiste Colbert- finance minister- helps economy grow
In 1685, Louis cancels Edict of Nantes; Huguenots flee France The Sun King's Grand Style Louis Controls the Nobility
Louis keeps nobles at palace to increase his power over them
Builds magnificent palace at Versailes Patronage of the Arts
Versailes is a center of arts during reign of Louis XIV
Purpose of the arts is to glorify Louis Louis Fights Disastrous Wars Attempts to Expand France's Boundaries
Louis fights wars in 1660s, 1670s to expand France
In 1680s, many countries unite against hm in League of Augsburg
France is weakened by poor harvests, warfare, high taxes War of the Spanish Succession
Begins in 1701
Ends in 1714 Louis's Death and Legacy
Louis dies leaving mixed legacy Section 3: Central European Monarchs Clash The Thirty Years' War Tension rises between Lutherans and Catholics in central Europe In 1618, protestants revolt against Catholic Hapsburg rulers
Results is Thirty Years' War- conflict over religion, land, power Peace of Westphalia
War ruins German economy, greatly decreases population
Treaty weakens Hapsburgs, strengthens France
4 million people had died during the war States Form in Central Europe Several Weak Empires
Landowning nobles in central Europe block growth of kings' power
Ottoman and Holy Roman empires are also weak Maria Theresa becomes empress of Austrai, faces years of war Prussia Challenges Austria Hohenzollern rulers of Prussia build Europe's best army
Call themselves kings and become absolute monarchs Fedrick the Great becomes king of Prussia In 1740, Fedrick starts a war against Austria to gain Silesia The Seven Years' War
Austrai allies with France against Briain and Prussia
France loses colonies in North America; Britian gains India Section 4: Absolute Rulers of Russia The First Czar Ivan the Terrible
In 1533, Ivan the Terrible becomes king of Russia
Struggles for power with boyars- landowning nobles
Seizes power and is crowned czar, meaning "caersar" Rule by Terror
In 1560, Ivan turned against boyars, kills them, seizes lands Rise of the Romanovs
In 1613, Michael Romanov becomes czar Peter the Great Comes to Power The Rise of Peter
Peter the Great becomes czar in 1696, begins to reform Russia Russia Contracts with Europe
Cut off geographically from Europe
Culturally isolated, little contact with western Europe Peter Rules Absolutely Goal of westernization- using western Europe as model for change Peter's Reforms
Reduces power of great landowners Establishing St. Petersburg
Peter wants a seaport that will make travel to West easier
Fights Sweden to win port on Baltic Sea Section 5: Parliament Limits the English Monarchy Monarchs Defy Parliment James's Problems
James I of Scotland becomes king of England in 1603
James's son, Charles I, becomes king in 1625
Also fights Parliament over money
Parliament forces him to sign petition of right in 1628
Petition limits Charles's power, but he ignores it English Civil War
War Topples a King
In 1641, parliament passes laws to limit the king's power
Result is English Civil War(1642-1649) between Puritans, king
In 1644, Oliver Cromwell becomes general on Puritan side
After Puritans win, Charles faces trial and execution in 1649 Cromwell's Rule
In 1649, Cromwell abolishes monarchy, House of Lords
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