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Transcript of Mesopotamian Civilization
MRS. KEY The Land Between Two Rivers The Cradle Of Civilization SUMERIANS Brief History Sumerians believed in many gods that controlled certain natural or human activity. Some years it would flood, but the flooding was unpredictable. Farmers worried about their crops and began to believe that they needed their gods to help them. The Sumerians built a grand temple called a Ziggurat, which means "mountain of god" or hill of heavens". The top was called a shrine, or special place of worship that only priests and priestesses could visit. These people were powerful and controlled much of the land.
Many of the worshiped gods include Anu, god of the sky, Anlil, god of the air, Utu, sun god and lord of truth and justice, Nanna, the moon god, and Enki, god of fresh water and lord of wisdom and magic. Some major goddesses were Inanna, goddess of love and war, and Ninhursag, the goddess of the earth. Sumer was found in 3500 BC. The oldest and largest city was Uruk with a population of 10,000. The population multiplied by 5 over 800 years. Most people were farmers, and a surplus of food was produced. After the basic need of food was settled, people began to make sculptures, pottery, bronze, bakeries, breweries, and weavings.
Sumerian cities were isolated from each other by geography. Each city and its surroundings were called a city-state. Each city-state had their own government and fought with each other. Sumerians invented and many concepts and objects. They made a type of writing called cuneiform that scribes used. Farmers built irrigation systems from dams, channels and ditches. Other major inventions that made life easier include the plow, the sail, and the wagon wheel. They developed many architectural concepts like the arch, column, and dome. Many mathematical concepts came from Mesopotamia, like the calendar, geometry, a number system based on 60, and a twelve month calendar based on the cycles of the moon. Evidence shows that Mesopotamia had tablets which had concepts similar to the Pythagorean triples. Sumerians also made glass and a pottery wheel, which used rotary motion. BABYLONIANS AKKADIANS ASSYRIANS CHALDEANS ANU ENKI NINHURSAG ZIGGURAT PLOW SAIL POTTERY WHEEL Sumerian city- states fought with each other so often that they built walls around their land. Since they didn't have much stone and wood, the Sumerians used river mud to build. They mixed to mud with crushed reeds to form bricks and then they sun dried them. These bricks were handy because they could also be used to make walls, homes, temples, and other buildings.
Between the city-states, there was only mudflats and patches of the searing desert. Each fought to gain glory and control more territory. After they were weakened by conflicts, the city-states became vulnerable to Akkadian attacks of northern Mesopotamia. Sargon, the King of Akkadians, conquered all of Mesopotamia in 2340 B.C. I URUK RUINS GEOGRAPHY Mesopotamia (present day southern Iraq) is Greek for "the land between the rivers". It is a flat plain bound by the Tigris and Euphrates River. Mesopotamia is in the eastern part of the Fertile Crescent. Mesopotamia has a hot, dry climate. In the spring, the rivers would flood and make the soil rich for farming crops. The first civilizations were built in river valleys because of farming conditions and trade. Traveling through the rivers made transportation easy. Sumerians planted dates, grapes, figs, melons, apples, eggplant, onions, radishes, beans, lettuce, wheat, barley, millet, and even sesame seeds. These people use spears to hunt and nets to fish. They got their food from nearby marshes and rivers. SARGON Sargon of Akkad conquered Mesopotamia in 2340 BC. Sargon was born to a date farmer and built a city called Akkad. He slowly conquered all the land around it and built the first Empire: the Akkadian Empire. His daughter Enheduanna wrote two songs for the gods, which makes her the first author of all time. Two of Sargon's sons were assassinated and then Sargon's young grandson Naram-Sin ruled for a whopping 56 years. Eventually, Naram-Sin's son Shar-kali-Sharri became the king and in 2100 BC., the empire fell back into city states. Ur-Nammu also set up a new dynasty in 2112 BC that was about one hundred years old. He made the oldest code of law known (older than Hammurabi by about three centuries) that has a prologue followed by seven laws. Ur-Nammu built the famous monument, the Ziggurat of Ur. The empire was eventually sacked in 2004 BC. The Babylonian King, Hammurabi, set up his empire in 1792 BC., and started to take over cities to the north and south, thus creating the Babylonian Empire. He is known for his law code, which covered almost every area of life.
With 282 laws to govern the Babylonians, some could be cruel and barbaric, while others were fair. Historians say that they are fair because they brought order and justice to society and regulated many different activities. Some say they were mean, because they called for violent punishments, required different punishments depending on social rank, and did not allow a defending statement from the accused.
Even if some were a slightly too harsh, his laws are an important step towards a fair justice system. NARAM-SIN ENHEDUANNA CRUEL Here are some examples of cruel laws. LAW 5: If a judge makes an error through his own fault when trying a case, he must pay a fine, be removed from the judge's bench, and never judge another case.
LAW 122: If someone gives something to someone else for safekeeping, the transaction should be witnessed and a contract made between two parties.
LAW 233: If a contractor builds a house for someone and the walls start to fall, then the builder must use his own money and labor to make the walls secure. FAIR Examples of fair laws from Hammurabi's code LAW 3: If someone falsely accuses someone else of certain crimes, then he shall be put to death.
LAW 22: If someone is caught in the act of robbery, then he shall be put to death.
LAW 195: If a son strikes his father, the son's hands shall be cut off.
LAW 202: If someone strikes a man of higher rank, then he shall be whipped 60 times is public. Assyria (north has fertile valleys that attracted enemies. The Assyrians built a large army to defend their land. At 900 BC, they began to take over Mesopotamia. Assyrians were known for their military strength. They were the first to use strengthened iron as weapons. Assyrian kings divided the empire into provinces, or political districts. The capital of the empire was Nineveh. The officials collected taxes and enforced laws. Government soldiers were posted at trade routes where all the provinces were connected to protect the traders from thieves. The Assyrians had the world's first library in Nineveh, which held 25,000 tablets of stories and songs about the gods. Library The Chaldeans, led by Nebuchadnezzar, rebelled in 612 BC., and built their own empire. Lasting from 605 BC. to 562 BC., they moved the capital back to Babylon as the glorious center of their empire. Babylon became the world's largest and richest city. It was surrounded by a brick wall so wide that two chariots could pass on the road on top. The king also built the Hanging Gardens to please his wife, who was not used to the Mesopotamian scenery. The Chaldeans also made one of the first sundials and were the first to have a seven-day week. Eventually, in 539 BC., the Persians captured Babylon. In 613 BC, Persians took over for two centuries. Then, Alexander the Great, the Macedonian king, conquered Darius the Third’s Persian empire. After Alex died, Seleucius I ruled until the Parthians overran the area in 140 BC. Next, Romans added Mesopotamia to their empire after 165 AD, then Sassanids from Persia retained it, then Islam swept it into Muslim orbit in AD 637. Mongols took over until Persians ruled for the third time . Ottoman Sultan Suleiman I the Magnificent took the region after Persia in 1534 and ruled until the end of World War I. Finally, it separated into states. Epilogue RESOURCES THE BEST RESOURCES TRIVIA TIME! PRESENT 400 MATH, SCIENCE, HISTORY
UNRAVELING THE MYSTERY
IT STARTED WITH A BIG BANG! LET'S SUM IT UP! UR-NAMMU N.p., n.d. Web. 8 Sept. 2012. <http://theblueshadow.net/wp-content/uploads/ziggurat-of-ur.jpg>. N.p., n.d. Web. 8 Sept. 2012. <http://dms.madisoncity.k12.al.us/?PageName=TeacherPage&Page=9&StaffID=145347&iSection=Teachers&CorrespondingID=145347>. N.d. Photograph. Web. 8 Sept. 2012. <http://arthuride.files.wordpress.com/2011/08/cuneiform-code-of-les-talionis-or-law-or-retaliation.jpg> "Romeo's Class Wiki." Romeo's Class Wiki. N.p., n.d. Web. 08 Sept. 2012. <http://gizzisgoodies.wikispaces.com/2nd hour 2011-2012 Sumer>. N.p., n.d. Web. 8 Sept. 2012. <http://www.hotspotsz.com/printout492.html>. Spielvogel, Jackson J. "The First Civilizations." Journey Across Time The Early Ages. Columbus: Glencoe, 2005. 18-44. Print (aka Textbook) N.p., n.d. Web. 8 Sept. 2012. <http://www.bibleorigins.net/YahwehsBovineFormsImages.html>. Digital image. N.p., n.d. Web. 8 Sept. 2012. <http://www.newworldencyclopedia.org/entry/Ninhursag>. Digital image. N.p., n.d. Web. 8 Sept. 2012. <Digital image. Patentpending.blogs. N.p., n.d. Web. 8 Sept. 2012. .>. Sumeria, Ancient Sumeria (Sumer), A History of Ancient Sumer Including Its Contributions. Digital image. Sumeria, Ancient Sumeria (Sumer), A History of Ancient Sumer Including Its Contributions. N.p., n.d. Web. 08 Sept. 2012. <http://history-world.org/sumeria.htm>. Akkadians. Digital image. - Mesopotamian History for Kids! N.p., n.d. Web. 08 Sept. 2012. <http://www.historyforkids.org/learn/westasia/history/akkadians.htm>. "Ur-Nammu." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. 2012. Encyclopedia.com. 8 Sep. 2012 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>. "The 3rd Dynasty of Ur." The 3rd Dynasty of Ur. N.p., n.d. Web. 08 Sept. 2012. <http://www.swartzentrover.com/cotor/Bible/Timelines/Babylon/Ur.htm>. Victory Stele OfÂ Naram-Sin. Digital image. About.com Ancient / Classical History. N.p., n.d. Web. 08 Sept. 2012. <http://ancienthistory.about.com/od/greekartarchaeology/ig/Wordless-Wednesday-Pictures/Victory-Stele-of-Naram-Sin.htm>. "Re: Option Bac: Danse Orientale / Les Mouvements Dans La Danse Orientale (Forum Danse Orientale)." Re: Option Bac: Danse Orientale / Les Mouvements Dans La Danse Orientale (Forum Danse Orientale). N.p., n.d. Web. 08 Sept. 2012. <http://www.irida.fr/forum/mouvements.php?msg=84227>. Images of Authority I. Digital image. Images of Authority I. N.p., n.d. Web. 08 Sept. 2012. <http://www.oneonta.edu/faculty/farberas/arth/ARTH200/politics/big_man.html>. "...on the Road to the Royal Library at Ninevah." : . N.p., n.d. Web. 08 Sept. 2012. <http://elderboblog.typepad.com/ontheroad/2005/09/on_the_road_to_.html>. Mehta-Jones, Shilpa. Life in Ancient Mesopotamia. New York: Crabtree Pub., 2005. Print. N.p., n.d. Web. 8 Sept. 2012. <mesopotamia.lib.uchicago.edu/>. White Daisy Flower. Digital image. - Free Clip Art. N.p., n.d. Web. 08 Sept. 2012. <http://www.sweetclipart.com/white-daisy-flower-306>. Sun. Digital image. N.p., n.d. Web. <http://www.cartoonclipartworld.com/sun/>. The Big Bang Theory. Digital image. Fanpop.com. N.p., n.d. Web. 8 Sept. 2012. <http://www.fanpop.com/spots/the-big-bang-theory/images/12699716/title/big-bang-theory-wallpaper>. Digital image. N.p., n.d. Web. 8 Sept. 2012. <http://www.answersingenesis.org/articles/nab/does-archaeology-support-the-bible>. 1600 1200 800 B.C. 400 1 B.C. 800 B.C. 1200 1600 2000 B.C. B.C. B.C. 2400 B.C. B.C. 2800 B.C. 3200 SPECIAL THANKS prezi.com
Microsoft Word 2007
Microsoft PowerPoint 2007
You (the audience) QUESTION 1: Sumerians developed what system of writing? A. Cuneiform
D. Binary QUESTION 2: For whom did Nebuchadnezzar build the Hanging Gardens for? A. His wife
B. His pet bird
C. His children
D. His mother QUESTION 3: Mesopotamia is bound by which two rivers? A. The Tigris and Euphrates
B. The Nile and the Amazon
C. The Yangtze and Yellow
D. The Mississippi and Rio Grande THE GROWTH OF MESOPOTAMIA 3600 B.C. Sumer Founded 3500 B.C. Cuneiform Developed B.C. 3400 B.C. 2234-2193 Sargon the Great
Conquers Mesopotamia UR-NAMMU
CONQUERS MESOPOTAMIA 2112-2004 B.C. Hammurabi sets up Empire 1792-1595 B.C. Assyrians take over Mesopotamia 900-612 B.C. Persians rule for 200 years under Alex B.C. 539-239 Seleucis I ruled 239-140 B.C. Romans take over until Persia retains it A.D. 165 Persians rule for the third time Islam takes it and
Mesopotamia is then occupied by Mongols. A.D. 637 637-1534 A.D. Ottoman Sultan Suleiman I the magnificent occupies the crescent until the end of World War I A.D. 1534-1918 Mesopotamia finally breaks up into separate states A.D. 1918
Electric Chair. Digital image. N.p., n.d. Web. 9 Sept. 2012. <http://punishment.my3gb.com/cruel-and-unusual-punishment.html>. Mesopotamian Class Structure There were three different class structures made up of the upper, middle, and lower class. The upper class consisted of kings and priests. The middle class was made up of artisans, merchants, fishers, and farmers. The lower class consisted of slaves. The amount of wealth and power that someone has contributes to which class that person is in, as well as their occupation. War heroes were probably the first kings and their position became hereditary. THE EPIC OF GILGAMESH An epic is a long poem that tells the story of a hero. This work of literature is the oldest known story. Many of you are familiar with the Epic of Gilgamesh. He is a king and a hero who travels the world with his friend and does good deeds. When his friend dies, Gilgamesh looks for a way to live forever, but he soon finds out that this is possible only for the gods. WINSTON WILL PRESENT: STEPHEN WILL PRESENT: N.p., n.d. Web. 9 Sept. 2012. <http://www.sodahead.com/living/do-you-consider-yourself-to-be-fair-minded/question->. (All the answers were A, by the way) 3D cartoon hanging man. Digital image. N.p., n.d. Web. 9 Sept. 2012. <http://www.shutterstock.com/pic-36349810/stock-photo--d-pictogram-icon-of-hanging-man.html>. This painting depicts the clothing of
ancient Assyrian people. These stone statuettes are sculpted
to look like Chaldean spearmen Assyria is north of Mesopotamia and extends all the way to the Euphrates river. Other than the Tigris and Euphrates, some important rivers in Assyria's territory include the Upper Zab and Lower Zab.
Assyrians were great, talented artists that use art to tell stories battles and war heroes with scenes painted on ceramics.
There were scenes of warrior camps, armored men, war chariots, and baked bread. Apparently, bread was important to ancient people.
Poor people would dig a hole to bury dead Assyrians and the rich would build a room. Oil lamps were kept burning near or at the grave site. Assyrians practiced two religions: Ashurism and Christianity. Originally, Ashurism was the first religion, but at 256 A.D., Assyrians started to practice Christianity. BetBassoo, Peter. "History of Assyrians." History of Assyrians. N.p., 1 Apr. 2007. Web. 10 Sept. 2012. <http://www.aina.org/brief.html>. During the Christian Era,
many Mesopotamians were
Christian. In 640 AD, the Muslim
Arabs conquered Mesopotamia.
After the takeover, the Chaldean
religion became Islam. Their
language became Arabic.