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APUSH-Coming Together-Nationalism Ascendant
Transcript of APUSH-Coming Together-Nationalism Ascendant
The United States Supreme Court in the McCulloch v. Maryland ruled in favor of the McCulloch because the Necessary and Proper Clause of the United States Constitution stated that the Federal Government was permitted to operate banks within individual states without paying taxes. The decision in McCulloch v. Maryland created a precedent that led to a number of future decisions involving taxation issues and the federal government. Overall it solidified the power of the central government over the states and helped businesses therefore the case unified and strengthened the country as a whole.
Gibbons v. Ogden
This was one of the most important decisions of the early Supreme Court. The Court said that the federal commerce clause, in effect, outranked a state law that had granted a monopoly to one group of people.It promoted the idea that the federal government should have increased power over the state government. It resulted in the state governments' inability to interfere with interstate commerce and business. This court order made a more centralized power that linked the states together thus the country became more united.
The War of 1812
This war was between the military powers of the U.S. and Britain. The War of 1812 was important to the U.S. because they fought and defeated Britain without the help of France. In 1814 at Fort McHenry, Francis Scott Key watched the battle and saw the American flag flying above the fort and wrote, "The Star-Spangled Banner", that later became the national anthem. The idea of defeating a country without assistance and creating a national anthem gave the United States a sense of nationalism, prosperity, and confidence.
The Embargo Act
The Embargo Act, issued by Thomas Jefferson, forbid all international trade to and from the American ports in a attempt to force Britain to reconsider restrictions on American trade. Although it had more bad effects on the U.S. than Britain(such as economic issues), in the end the effect of industrialization on the United States helped to make us a stronger,more unified, independent country because America became dependent upon itself to manufacture its own goods which created a sense of nationalism.
Dartmouth College v. Woodward
In the Dartmouth College v. Woodward case, the Supreme Court decided that the New Hampshire Act altered the charter of Dartmouth college. As a result of this ruling the Contract clause was strengthened and the power of the States was limited in the interference with private institutions' charters. This court case supported the increased power of the federal government that further created a nationalistic view.
The Monroe Doctrine Proclaimed that America should be free from future European colonization and free from European interference in sovereign countries' affairs. It further issued the United States intention to stay neutral with European powers and their colonies.The Monroe Doctrine helped show that the United States was a global power that could stand up to European colonization of the New World without the help of other countries. The peoples support of the government's anti-European decision created a more unified country and a increased sense of nationalism.
The Erie Canal is a canal that goes from the Hudson River to Lake Erie that increased the speed of transportation between the Eastern Seaboard of the United States and the western interior. The Erie Canal was not the first canal built in the US, but it was the most influential. The Erie Canal opened the upper Ohio River Valley and the Great Lakes region for settlement and trade. It made trading faster because of the use of steamboats on the Canal. Not only did the Canal connect the regions together therefore unifying them but it also raised the spirit of nationalism/pride in the government and became a symbol of progress in the United States.
Under the terms of this treaty, Spain sold Florida to the United States for $5 million. The US agreed to assume financial claims by residents against the Spanish government. Spain also gave up its claims to Oregon north of the 42nd parallel. The U.S gained territory at little cost and without going to war. These negotiating powers proved that the government was able to accomplish goals peacefully so people found a new faith in the government. This trust in the government made the country unified and nationalistic.
The Louisana Purchase
The Louisiana Purchase contributed to a greater sense of independence and nationhood because this was the first major purchase($15million) for the U.S. and it doubled the size of the country. This purchase eventually led to the buying and selling of land, attracted thousands of immigrants, slowed the formation of states, and ultimately led to a growing nation. People also began expanding west, this increased the faith in the federal government because it showed that the government could fulfill the peoples needs of expanding to the west and ultimately led to a stronger/unified nation.
A telegraph is a long distance transmission of written messages without the physical transport of letters. The telegraph allowed information to be shared quickly to far regions. It facilitated the growth in the railroads, made businesses stronger and people more connected. With the telegraphs ability to spread information rapidly it created nationalism because it unified even the farthest parts of the country and allowed positive information about the government to be shared.
Art: Hudson River School(Thomas Cole)
This cultural development movement was characterized by the painting of landscape and scenery in the United States. These paintings represent nationalism because they show a unity of nature, how beautiful the country is, and how proud it should feel to be American. The Home in Woods(1847) painting illustrates the bliss families can find by living in the United States. The Oxbow(1846) painting depicts the beauty of the Connecticut River and the peacefulness of the country.
Art:Rocky Mountain School(Thomas Moran)
These paintings also depict scenery in the United States. It shows nature as being strong and powerful which promotes the nationalistic idea in that the United states is also strong and powerful.
Architecture:Monticello and University of Virginia
Thomas Jefferson's classic revival was a more appropriate style than Georgian for public buildings in the new United States because when the British ruled the colonies Georgian was the style they used. Now that the United States was independent from British rule, he believed that the classic revival style would further distinguish the country from the British.
Literature: Ralph Waldo Emerson
Ralph Waldo Emerson’s piece "Self Reliance" has a theme of becoming dependent on yourself. His piece connects to nationalism because during this time in history, the United States became more independent. Being independent brought the Americans closer together because they had to rely on each other in order to build a strong foundation. Knowing they could succeed on their own gave them a feeling of pride for their country and made them more nationalistic.
Literature: John Greenleaf Whittier
One of Whittier's writings is "Justice and Expedience" which he wrote in 1833 to urge immediate abolition in the United States. The theme of his piece is emerging nationalism because he believed as a country they should push towards abolition. This poem relates to my theme because it talks about being free and seeing things from a different point of view which is the principles of our country that create a sense of pride and nationalism.
Literature: Oliver Wendell Holmes
Holmes wrote a piece called "Imperial Visions" based on the expansion into the far east of Russia. In his writing he shows his nationalism through the themes and descriptions of the people and their feelings on the impending expansion. The theme of Imperial Visions is cultural nationalism in America. His piece helped demonstrate the revisionist thoughts about nationalism of this time period. It also helped add to the majority's thoughts about the United States.
Women: Elizabeth Cady Stanton
Elizabeth Stanton, as known as, "The Revolution", organized a women’s rights convention in New York where over 300 people attended. She created a Declaration of Sentiments. In this Declaration, she stated that men and women are created equal, women should have the right to vote, and women’s taxation without representation should be ended. Stanton also wrote articles and letters for women to have the right to go to medical school, wear short hair and more comfortable clothing, and to write novels and take jobs of their choice. She argued that women had a right to her own property and to earn wages. She thought women should have a legal right to leave an abusive marriage and to decide with who and when to have children. Through her efforts, in 1860, laws regarding the economic rights of married women, the custody rights of mothers, and equal rights for widows were revised in New York.
Women: Susan B Anthony
Susan B Anthony felt that women should have the same rights as men. At her work place, she noticed that she was making about one fourth what a man would make for the same job, so she became involved in trying to get the government to let women vote and to enact laws that women should have equal rights with men. She started with speaking at conventions and meetings. Then she helped run a civil rights newspaper with Elizabeth Cady Stanton. To continue with her fight for women's suffrage she voted in the November 1872 elections where she was fined $100 for voting because it was illegal at the time. She refused to pay and never did pay the fine, instead she made it a way to spread information on women's suffrage. Susan B Anthony and Elizabeth Cady Stanton founded the National Women's Suffrage Association in 1869. Through this organization she worked to get women the right to vote. She devoted 37 years and the rest of her life to this effort to women's suffrage. She made a great amount of progress, but it would take another 14 years after she died for women to get the right to vote. As a result of Anthony's efforts, on August 26, 1920 the nineteenth amendment was officially added to the constitution. It stated everyone had the right to vote regardless of gender.
The Lowell System
The Lowell System was developed in the textile mills of Lowell, Massachusetts, in the 1820s. Women from surrounding areas were brought in to work in factories. They worked for little money in horrible conditions and slept in rooms provided by the factory. In these factories as much machinery as possible was used, so that few skilled workers were needed in the process. The women worked for a few years and then returned home to be housewives because they saw this as temporary work. The constant turnover of workers kept worker demands low, which benefited factory owners. An economic middle class of manufacturers, bankers, and their families began to grow during this period. Factory towns also grew.
APUSH-Coming Together-Nationalism Ascendant
By: Makenzi Alley
Comparison to Republican Motherhood:
Republican motherhood instructed women to stay home and raise children who would be ideal assets to the republican government. The Lowell was a improvement to Republican Motherhood because women began becoming a part in improving the economy/country instead of only being housewives.
Comparison to The Cult of Domesticity
In the Cult of Domesticity women were held to a certain set of responsibilities. They were they were supposed to be loving, faithful to their husbands, and good mothers who taught their children to be responsible. The Cult of Domesticity began because men started working out of the home when many families moved away from farms and into cities. Since there was no real work for women to do, they were assigned this type of role to make society better. The Cult of Domesticity was basically the women in the middle class falling back into staying at home which is why the Lowell system was an improvement because it allowed women to provide for their families in different aspects such as economically.
Nationalism: Loyalty and devotion to a nation;
: a sense of national consciousness exalting one nation above all others and placing primary emphasis on promotion of its culture and interests as opposed to those of other nations.
Political Nationalism was active in the 19th century. It can be seen during the War of 1812 and through the Monroe Doctrine. The War of 1812 created a greater sense of nationalism because the U.S. fought and defeated Britain without the help of France. The national identity was increased in 1814 at Fort McHenry, when Francis Scott Key watched the battle and saw the American flag flying above the fort and wrote, "The Star-Spangled Banner", that later became the national anthem. The idea of defeating a country without assistance and creating a national anthem gave the United States a sense of nationalism, prosperity, and confidence and at this time also gave Americans the faith that their country could truly be independent. The Monroe Doctrine also increased nationalism in America. The Monroe Doctrine Proclaimed that America should be free from future European colonization and free from European interference in sovereign countries' affairs. At this time, the Monroe Doctrine created a greater sense of nationalism and national identity because it helped show that the United States as a whole was a global power that could stand up to European colonization of the New World without the help of other countries. The peoples support of the government's anti-European decision, also unified the people and the government. The effects of the War of 1812 and the Monroe Doctrine can actively be seen in our society today. The Monroe Doctrine asserted that the U.S would be free form European colonization and free from European interference in sovereign countries affairs. It is still in effect today in Foreign affairs. It gives the government to power to expand and help other nations that help the United States also if it was not in effect Spain would have invaded Florida and it would not be as big as it should be. The Star Spangled Banner was a effect of the War of 1812. The Star Spangled banner eventually became our national anthem which further unified us as a country. It can be heard today being sung at any major sporting events and even in the aftermath of the September 11th attacks.
The Grand Canyon of Yellowstone(1904)
University of Virginia
The Home in Woods(1847)
The Oxbow (1846)
Henry Clay's American System
Henry Clay gained federal government support for improvements to the infrastructure of the United States primarily the improvements to the roads and canals. These improvements would be financed by the Tariff of 1828 and also by sale of the public lands which would be sold at high prices to make a better revenue. Finally, a national bank would stabilize the currency and serve as a national financial system. The American System was supported by many in both the North and the South at first but later with the Tariff of 1828(promoted manufacturing) the American System lost support from the South that led to a nullification crisis. It was caused by the increased split between north and south and got worse in the decades leading up to the American Civil War. Clay's American System was opposed by President Jackson's administration. In the end it helped unite the United States by having a national bank and improved transportation which connected the country.