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Thorax and Abdomen Project

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Maisy Moats

on 6 March 2013

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Transcript of Thorax and Abdomen Project

Testicular Torsion- Spermatic cord twists resulting in a lack of blood supply.
Signs/Symptoms- Tenderness and swelling of the testicles, nausea, vomiting, discoloration, abdominal pain, one may be higher than the other.
MOI- Injury to the scrotum, Physical activity, sleep.
Treatment/Management- Have surgery or wait to see if they untwist. MYOTOMES Quadrants of the Abdomen Thorax and Abdomen Project Upper Right Quadrant
Stomach, spleen, adrenal gland, pancreas,
colon, small intestine, left kidney.

Upper Left Quadrant
Liver, adrenal gland, gall bladder, stomach,
head of pancreas, colon, small intestine, and
right kidney.

Lower Right Quadrant
Small and large intestine, colon, and the
urinary and reproductive system.

Lower Left Quadrant
The appendix (McBerny's Point), colon, small
and large intestine, urinary and reproductive
system. How Fluids Get To The Bladder 1: Liquid is swallowed.
2:The Liquid goes down the esophagus and into the stomach.
3: The liquid then goes to the kidneys and gets filtered and made into urine.
4: The concoction then travels to the urethra and out the unit. Injuries Spleen Rupture- A ruptured spleen is an emergency medical condition that occurs when the capsule-like covering of the spleen breaks open, pouring blood into your abdominal area. Depending on the size of the rupture, a large amount of internal bleeding can occur.

Common Mechanisms of Injury- Motor vehicle accidents, injury during contact sports, such as football and hockey, bicycle accidents, such as falling into your bicycle's handlebars, and domestic violence.

Signs and Symptoms- Abdominal pain, usually severe, but not always. Pain may be felt in these locations; Left side of the abdomen under the rib cage and left shoulder.
Internal bleeding caused by the ruptured spleen can cause blood pressure to drop. This can cause blurred vision, confusion, light-headedness, fainting, signs of shock, including restlessness, anxiety, nausea, and paleness.

Treatment and Management- People with spleen injuries who do not need surgery must still be monitored in a hospital, and they may need blood transfusions. In severe cases, surgery is required and the entire spleen is still usually removed. But in the case of small tears, the surgeon may try to save the spleen instead. This involves repairing the tear and putting pressure on the spleen or blood vessels till the blood clots and stops the leak. Phases of H.O.P.S. History- Mechanisms, location, sensation, previous injuries.
Observation- Look for signs of trauma.
Palpation- Neurological, circulatory, anatomical, fracture.
Special Tests-
-Palpation for fractures: Supine position, anterior to posterior, compress rib cage.
-Palpation of abdomen: Rebound tenderness
-Vital sings: Pulse (60-80), Blood Pressure (20/80), Respiration (20-25).
-Heart sounds: Normal sounds; lub-dub. C4 SHOULDER SHRUGS
C ABDUCTION TEST OF THE ARMS
C6 WRIST EXTENTION
C7 TRICEPS EXTENTION
C8 FINGER FLEXION
T1 FINGER ABDUCTION
T2-T10 THORAX / ABDUCTION MUSLCE CONTRACTION
L1 HIP EXTENSION AND ADDCUTION
L2 HIP FLEXION
L3 HIIP FLEXION
L4 DORSI FLEXION
L5 TOE EXTENSION
S1 PLANTAR FLEXION OF THE ANCLE AND HAMSTRINGS
S2 FLEXOR HALLUCES LONGUS Dermatomes C3 -
In the supraclavicular fossa, at the midclavicular line.
C4 -
Over the acromioclavicular joint.
C5 -
On the lateral (radial) side of the antecubital fossa, just proximally to the elbow.
C6 -
On the dorsal surface of the proximal phalanx of the thumb.
C7 -
On the dorsal surface of the proximal phalanx of the middle finger.
C8 -
On the dorsal surface of the proximal phalanx of the little finger.
T1 -
On the medial (ulnar) side of the antecubital fossa, just proximally to the medial epicondyle of the humerus.
T2 -
At the apex of the axilla.
T3 -
Intersection of the midclavicular line and the third intercostal space
T4 -
Intersection of the midclavicular line and the fourth intercostal space, located at the level of the nipples.
T5 -
Intersection of the midclavicular line and the fifth intercostal space, horizontally located midway between the level of the nipples and the level of the xiphoid process.
T6 -
Intersection of the midclavicular line and the horizonal level of the xiphoid process. Blood Flow Through The Heart The flow through the heart is complex, with blood moving through the heart, then the lungs, before returning again to the heart. Blood returns to the heart from the body via two large blood vessels, called the superior vena cava and the inferior vena cava. This blood carries little oxygen, as it is returning from the body where oxygen is used. The blood first enters the right atrium. It then flows through the tricuspid valve into the right ventricle. When the heart beats, the ventricle pushes the blood through the pulmonic valve into the pulmonic artery. This artery is unique: It is the only artery in the human body that carries oxygen-poor blood. The pulmonic artery carries blood to the lungs where it “picks up” oxygen, and leaves the lungs and returns to the heart through the pulmonic vein. The blood enters the left atrium, then descends through the mitral valve into the left ventricle. The left ventricle then pumps blood through the aortic valve, and into the aorta, the blood vessel that leads to the rest of the body. T7 -
Intersection of the midclavicular line and the horizontal level at one quarter the distance between the level of the xiphoid process and the level of the umbilicus.
T8 -
Intersection of the midclavicular line and the horizontal level at one half the distance between the level of the xiphoid process and the level of the umbilicus.
T9 -
Intersection of the midclavicular line and the horizontal level at three quarters of the distance between the level of the xiphoid process and the level of the umbilicus.
T10 -
Intersection of the midclavicular line, at the horizontal level of the umbilicus.
T11 -
Intersection of the midclavicular line, at the horizontal level midway between the level of the umbilicus and the inguinal ligament.
T12 -
Intersection of the midclavicular line and the midpoint of the inguinal ligament.
L1 -
Midway between the key sensory points for T12 and L2. Major Internal Organs Stomach


Spleen


Aorta

Kidney

Liver


Gallbladder

Pancreas

Small Intestine

Large Intestine

Diaphragm

Inferior Vena Cava Kidney Contusion Irritable Bowel Syndrome A bruised kidney (or kidney contusion) occurs following a direct impact to the lower back area. This is most commonly from car accidents, although may also result from a fall or a physical attack, such as being kicked in the back. MOI
Abdominal pain or cramping
A bloated feeling
Gas (flatulence)
Diarrhea or constipation — sometimes even alternating bouts of constipation and diarrhea
Mucus in the stool
Avoid caffeine and alcohol.
Limit your intake of fatty foods.
If diarrhea is your main symptom, limit dairy products, fruit, and artificial sweeteners such as sorbitol or xylitol.
Increasing fiber in your diet may help relieve constipation.
Avoiding foods such as beans, cabbage, or uncooked cauliflower or broccoli can help relieve bloating or gas. Signs and symptoms -Symptoms of a kidney injury may include abdominal bruise, abdominal pain, abdominal swelling, red or pink urine, breathing difficulty, flank pain, back pain, nausea, and vomiting. The treatment for a kidney injury depends on the type and severity of injury. Minor bruises and lacerations to the kidney may heal without surgery. However, severe injuries require surgery, in order to repair damaged tissue and blood vessels. Treatment/Management Signs and Symptoms - Testicular Torsion wagon wheel The enlarged, saclike portion of the alimentary canal, one of the principal organs of digestion, located in vertebrates between the esophagus and the small intestine A large, highly vascular lymphoid organ, lying in the human body to the left of the stomach below the diaphragm, serving to store blood, disintegrate old blood cells, filter foreign substances from the blood, and produce lymphocytes. The main trunk of the systemic arteries, carrying blood from the left side of the heart to the arteries of all limbs and organs except the lungs. one of a pair of organs in the dorsal region of the vertebrate abdominal cavity, functioning to maintain proper water and electrolyte balance, regulate acid-base concentration, and filter the blood of metabolic wastes, which are then excreted as urine. A large, reddish-brown, glandular vertebrate organ located in the upper right portion of the abdominal cavity that secretes bile and is active in the formation of certain blood proteins and in the metabolism of carbohydrates, fats, and proteins. A small, pear-shaped muscular sac, located under the right lobe of the liver, in which bile secreted by the liver is stored until needed by the body for digestion. A long, irregularly shaped gland in vertebrates, lying behind the stomach, that secretes pancreatic juice into the duodenum and insulin, glucagon, and somatostatin into the bloodstream The narrow, winding, upper part of the intestine where digestion is completed and nutrients are absorbed by the blood. It extends from the pylorus to the cecum and consists of the duodenum, the jejunum, and the ileum The portion of the intestine that extends from the ileum to the anus, forming an arch around the convolutions of the small intestine and including the cecum, colon, rectum, and anal canal. muscular membranous partition separating the abdominal and thoracic cavities and functioning in respiration. Also called midriff receives blood from lower limbs and abdominal organs and empties into the posterior part of the right atrium of the heart; formed from the union of the two iliac veins
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