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Early Civilizations: Mesopotamia (1.3, 2.1, 2.2)

Chapter One Section Three and Chapter Two Sections One and Two
by

Tim Justice

on 13 September 2016

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Transcript of Early Civilizations: Mesopotamia (1.3, 2.1, 2.2)

Early Civilizations:
Mesopotamia and Egypt

CTA: PUT IN JOURNAL
Answer your Evaluating Source question individually and then discuss with those around you what source is more credible. Make sure that y'all have the same Source!!!!!!
The Start of Civilization
So what exactly is a civilization?

5
essential traits for a civilization:
Life in Sumer
Fertile Crescent Disadvantages Sumerian Solutions
Sumer's Downfall and Hammurabi
1. Declaration of Independence
2. Slavery in South Carolina
3. Nazi concentration camps

Objectives:
1. We will be able to identify and discuss key characteristics of Egypt’s civilization dealing with its culture, technology, government, and economy.

2. We will work to develop literacy skills related to annotating and writing a claim/thesis.

3. We will explain what made Egypt and Mesopotamia great civilizations.




Early civilization emerged in the
Fertile Crescent
Why would this region be important with rivers and streams?
The region between the
Tigris
and
Euphrates
is known as
Mesopotamia
.
One of the first villages was
Sumer
and its villagers were Sumerians.
Sumer was neither a city nor a country. But a collection of cities with a common culture. These cities operated as a city-state (ex. Ur).
Historians believe that Sumerians built the world's first
civilization
.
1. Advanced Cities
2. Specialized Workers
3. Record Keeping
4. Advanced Technology
5. Complex Institutions
(ex. Artisans)
(ex. Cuneiform)
(copper+tin=Bronze, plow, sail, wheel)
(government, education) a must
1. Water Problems-unpredictability of floods and water dries up quickly
1. Sumerians created irrigation ditches.
2. Defense Problems---Very flat land...there were no natural defensive barriers to prevent raids by nomads
3. Limited Natural Resources--
Lack of resources to create tools.
(Stones, Wood Metal)
2. Sumerians built city walls with mud bricks to discourage raids.

3. Sumerians created an extensive trade network with surrounding people
Religion
Polytheism
The belief in more than one good
Gods were believed to be similar but
immortal and all-powerful
Anu
Enlil
Ea
Souls went to "the land of no return"
(Ziggurat)
Rulers of Sumer--Social Hierarchy
Priests and Kings
Priests could please the gods, manged irrigation and demanded taxes from farmers.
Kings came as rulers and would eventually become a dynasty.
Priest and Kings
Wealthy Merchants
Artisans and Farmers
Slaves
Women had more rights than in many future civilizations
Sumer city-states fought each other for 1k years
(3000 BC to 2000 BC)
The fighting left it open to attacks by
nomads
Ur was left in ruins in
2000 BC
Turning Point in History:
"Hammurabi's Code"
2,000 B.C. warriors -
Amorites
-invaded Mesopotamia.
Capital city-
Babylon
-life too complex and hectic
King Hammurabi (1792-1750 BC) establishes a code
"Hammurabi 's Code"
1. Principle of Retaliation (
eye for an eye
)
2. Unequal Laws
3. Government was responsible
VERY IMPORTANT FIRST LAWS WRITTEN DOWN
Looking at Ancient Egypt
The
Nile River
was vital to Egypt!!!!
King Menes united Upper and Lower Egypt in 3100 BC
His capitol was Memphis.
Pharaohs
GODS
How did this compare to Mesopotamia?
Pharaohs were the center of Egypt's religion, government, and army. This is a
theocracy
.
Would you ever question a Pharaoh?
Hieroglyphics
A form of Egyptian writing based on pictorial characters for words and sounds
Egyptian Life
Pharaoh
High Priests & Nobles
Officials, scribes, and minor priests
Craftsmen
Servants, laborers, & peasants
Slaves
Menes' family passed the double crown of upper and lower Egypt from father to son
(dynasty)
The pharaoh ruled even after his death
Tombs had valuables and were heavily decorated
Pharaohs expected to reign for eternity.
Tombs were more important than their palaces.
The afterlife had a more positive image than in Mesopatamia.
 Egyptian Advances
Invented a better writing surface-
papyrus
.
Egyptians developed a calendar to keep track of floods.
Excellent mathematical knowledge helped build pyramids and palaces.
Great medical knowledge!!!

An Old Kingdom Declines Because of Disease and A New One Rises
Middle Kingdom (2040-1640 BC)
Law and order returned Egypt under strong kings
Farming, trade, and arts flourished
The capital moved from Memphis to Thebes
Great times meant more public works
Now ordinary people could have eternal souls.

Rosetta Stone
The Rosetta Stone carries an inscription in different languages, which helped
decode
the ancient Egyptian hieroglyphic script.
It is the only remaining part of a larger slab recording a decree on
March 27th, 196 B.C.

CTA:
YOU HAVE 20 MINUTES TO COMPLETE YOUR CIVILIZATION!!!!
Mesopotamia
Polytheistic
CTA:
What will America's monuments say about its society?
CTA
What do laws do for us and why do we have them?
Critical Thinking Activity:
FINISH YOUR LAW ACTIVITIES!!!!!!!

Rosetta Stone
The Rosetta Stone carries an inscription in different languages, which helped
decode
the ancient Egyptian hieroglyphic script.
It is the only remaining part of a larger slab recording a decree on
March 27th, 196 B.C.
Full transcript