Loading presentation...

Present Remotely

Send the link below via email or IM

Copy

Present to your audience

Start remote presentation

  • Invited audience members will follow you as you navigate and present
  • People invited to a presentation do not need a Prezi account
  • This link expires 10 minutes after you close the presentation
  • A maximum of 30 users can follow your presentation
  • Learn more about this feature in our knowledge base article

Do you really want to delete this prezi?

Neither you, nor the coeditors you shared it with will be able to recover it again.

DeleteCancel

Make your likes visible on Facebook?

Connect your Facebook account to Prezi and let your likes appear on your timeline.
You can change this under Settings & Account at any time.

No, thanks

Improving the reliability of 11kV Distribution Networks

No description
by

Sam Donnelly

on 4 February 2014

Comments (0)

Please log in to add your comment.

Report abuse

Transcript of Improving the reliability of 11kV Distribution Networks

Current prices of equipment between £3-4K per unit

Gridkey have quoted £2500 installed

Prices will comedown will final product designs and bulk by the DNO
Improving the Reliability of 11kV Distribution Networks
05/11/2013
12/11/2013
22/11/2013
10/12/2013
03/12/2013
Voltage and Current Measurement
Sajjad Ali, Sam Donnelly, Phil Moseley, Martin Smith, David Tuffery
Presentation Outline
Voltage and Current Measurements
Existing Communication Links
Communication Links
Power Line Communication
Cost Benefit Analysis
Post Fault Restoration
Modelling and Results

Thank you for listening

Any questions please?
Cost Benefit Analysis
Price Controls
Post Fault Restoration
Incentives to reduce CML’s
Limited without Communication links
South Wales implemented “Sequential Logic Schemes”
Predefined operations
Centralised control via ENMAC system
Cannot adjust to dynamically changing network
Will not operate if the open point has moved
Does not account for voltage or thermal violations

Companies have started producing more low voltage measurement systems for smarter networks with some being assessed by DNO’s.
Benefits of the theses systems
Accurate loading of networks
Knowledge of currents in networks which have been meshed this information can be used in fault analysis and judging the life of a transformer.
Capacity of the network form embedded generation
Systems have been designed for easy installation and commission so that substation can be worked on with no CMLs
There is ability to store information and present alarms in abnormal conditions
Already some plant is installed on the network but not used at its full potential e.g. sectionalizers
Two-way communication via modulation and demodulation of signal.

Advantages –
1. Uses existing infrastructure.
2. More secure communication.

Problems faced – Limited Frequency, Multipath propagation, Delay Spread, Inter Symbol Interference, Radio.
Types – Broadband (BPL).
Narrowband – G3-PLC, PRIME and REMPLI.
Telephone line – BT.
Fibre Optic.
GPRS.

PLC
Existing Communication Links
Dynamic Post Fault Restoration
Successfully Implemented in Midlands
A single algorithm for any network
Quick restoration
Requires enough remote switchgear at key points of the network
Determines SCADA device downstream of fault
SEF means sequence aborts

Possible Improvements:
Include power flow calculations
See how PLC could improve fault restoration
Reconfiguring to optimise network
Look into load variation
Investigation into meshed operation
Working towards this using Neplan and NPL

Model actual networks:
Rural
semi-rural
urban networks
Accuracy through obtaining real-world data
Numerous analysis tools available
NPL is extremely powerful part of Neplan

New Lodge Network
Neplan Programming Language
NPL uses the C++ programming language to interface directly with NEPLAN

NPL Ability
access properties of all objects in a network
add/remove objects from the network
run load-flows, protection simulations, etc.

Easily output complex data for post-processing and analysis

Complex or lengthy routines can be automated for use on any network

Neplan Modeling and Results
Results
Future Work
Research into using smart meter data
Investigation into improving dynamic restoration algorithms
Neplan studies dependent on literature review results
Meshed operation
Possibility of looking at Communication method proposed by Stephen
Implement RIIO incentives into to practical outputs
Gantt Chart
Summary
Set by OFGEM
A method of setting the amount of money (allowed revenue) that can be earned a DNO
DNO’s recover their allowed revenues from their charges to suppliers, who in turn pass these costs through to customers (16% of electricity bill)
Revenues are set to allow DNO’s to recover their network operating costs, whilst earning a reasonable return
Revenue = Incentives + Innovation + Outputs, Electricity Distribution edition 1
Price control commencing 2015-2023
Performance based model for setting DNO’s price controls, to encourage DNO’s to:
1) Put stakeholders at the heart of their decision making process
2) Invest efficiently to ensure continued safe and reliable services
3) Innovate to reduce network costs for current and future consumers
4) Play a full role in delivering a low carbon economy and wider environmental objectives

RIIO-ED1
Consumers
1) Improved Reliability – Strong Incentives to ensure reliable supply
2) Improved Customer Satisfaction
3) Quicker Connections

Innovation
1) Network Innovation Competition (NIC)
2) Network Innovation Allowance (NIA)
3) Innovation Roll-out Mechanism (IRM)

New V and I measurement technologies are improving visibility on 11kV networks
PLC in the past has focused on broadband communication
A number of issues to overcome before PLC could be reliable implemented
RIIO has large incentives for DNO's which actively invest in their network
Dynamic restoration algorithms have been largely successful
NPL and Neplan can quickly analyse a large quantity of data
Will keep up to date and realistic
Will be used as a progress guide


Presentation Outline
Cost Benefit Analysis - Sam
Voltage and Current Measurements - Martin
Communications - Sajjad
Automated Network Analysis (NPL) -Phil
Loadflow Modelling (Neplan) - Phil
Post Fault Automation - David
Gantt Chart, Future Work and Summary

Literature review summary:
Initially sectionalisers and PMAR's
Communication independent
Dead Time
Limited ability to reconfigure
Minimise customers affect upstream
Introduction of communication at sub and on 11kV feeders:
Remote switching to reduce CML
Control Engineer
Still very poor visibility overall
Post Fault Restoration
+
=
Thank you for listening

Any questions please?
Further research into using smart meter data
Simulations of existing Narrowband PLC technology used
Possibly modeling on existing networks.
Use RIIO incentive figures in NPL/Neplan studies
Detailed look into CML cost (£/Minute)
Ensure Automated Analysis code works on all networks
Finish creating a working dynamic algorithm
Carry out load-flow studies on all networks
A focus on financial viability of each proposed development
Gantt Chart
Summary
New V and I measurement technologies have potential to greatly improve visibility on 11kV networks
PLC in the past has focused on broadband communication
A number of issues to overcome before PLC could be reliable implemented with narrowband technology
RIIO has large incentives for DNO's which actively invest in their network
Potential improvements identified for restoration algorithm
Substantial progress made with NPL coding and Modelling
Kept up to date and realistic
Used as a progress guide
List of proposed payment levels for a range of different scenarios/conditions
Apply these costs (e.g. £72 per customer) to each of the networks
Integrate customer figures into our networks (e.g. 2000 customers fed from new lodge)
Implement CML charges into costs
NIC
• Open to Network Licensees, bidding for funding for innovative Projects which could deliver
carbon or environmental benefits
for electricity customers and that would not be funded by the Network Licensee without additional funding being made available.
£27m available each year, running annually from April 2013- March 2021
Operators submit a proposal, where a few are successful
Additional £3m for successful completion
DNO's will not be able to apply until 2015 the start of RIIO-ED1
Successfully Implemented in South Wales and South West
Collated data since scheme was implemented






Expensive due to man hours required and not dynamic
Comparing with 'Dynamic Algorithm' used in the Midlands
Issues include: usability, meshed operation and safety limits
Key improvements identified include:
load flow and fault Level calculations
Explore meshed reconfiguration
Steady state reconfiguration for optimisation
Existing Semi-urban Network
Voltage and Current Measurement
WPD's LV Sensors Report reviews Current LV Monitoring Systems for 11kV/415V Transformers
On-site assessment was conducted with 28 substations

4 Substations each per manufacturer

Mix of outdoor and indoor substations
Voltage and Measurement
Smart Metering
According to the European Union Directive 2012/27/EC and following the Directive 2009/72/EC, “where the roll-out of smart metering is assessed positively, at least 80% of the consumers should be equipped with intelligent metering systems by 2020”

The recommended common minimum functional requirements are:
a) to provide readings to the customer and any third part
b) to update reading frequently enough for the customer
c) to allow remote reading
d) to allow two-way communication
e) to allow reading to be taken frequently enough for network planning (smart grids)
f) to support advanced tariffs
g) to support on/off supply and/or flow and/or power limitation
h) to provide secure data communication
i) to ensure fraud prevention and detection
j) to provide input/ export and reactive metering.

Smart Metering
Most households will have smart meters installed by their energy company between 2015 and 2020, although some energy companies are starting to install smart meters now. DECC
Energy suppliers will be in charge of the roll-out of smart meters rather than distribution networks.
cost £340 pounds per household. However, it will be recoup the money from the saving of the high bills.

Smart Metering
Benefits of smart

metering
Bulk data from network
Real time Data
Improve knowledge of disconnection of customers
Remote reading
Knowledge of DG on LV

NEPLAN / NPL
Current Progress
Created a framework for our needs:
Custom data I/O
Custom libraries
Branching functions to trace network
Able to output detailed information for:
All nodes (or to a criteria)
All lines (or to a criteria)
Framework provides additional parameters such as total distance of a node from supply point
Non-network specific

Future Developments
Reliability module to place faults around network
Improve and implement WPD's existing algorithm
Compare how effective it is with additional 11kV data from our proposed sensors
Calculate CML & CMI followed by financial implications or benefits (RIIO/ED1)

Communications
Various types of communications
Power Line Communication(PLC).
GPRS.
Telephone line.
Fibre Optics.
What each offer and consequences.
Costs of equipments and services
Data Transfer.

Communications
Data Transfer –
How often data needs to be sent.
Symbol Duration.
Quality.
Standards and Protocols.


Definitions
Neplan - Loadflow modelling software
NPL -Neplan Programming Language
RTU - Remote Terminal Unit
ENMAC - Distribution Management System
EMU - Electrical Mapping Tool
SQC - Sequential Logic Scheme
CMl - Customer Minutes Lost
CI - Customer Interruptions
SQC Automation Scheme
Modelling Urban Network
Focussing on Park Lane Primary S/S (Cardiff)
Used WPD systems for accurate networks
ENMAC - Real-time network diagram
EMU - Geographical network diagram
DINAS - Line and cable details
Laid out the network in NEPLAN
Need to configure loads, lines, etc.
NEPLAN libraries for line and load data
Automatic input using NPL
RIIO-ED1
Normal Operation
Backfeeding
NPL Results
Current prices of equipment between £3-4K per unit

Gridkey have quoted £2600 installed

Prices will comedown will final product designs and bulk by the DNO
Presentation Outline
Post Fault Automation - David
Loadflow Modelling (Neplan) - David
Automated Network Analysis (NPL) -Phil
Cost Benefit Analysis - Sam
Communication Links - Sajjad
Power Line Communication
Voltage and Current Measurements - Martin
Gantt Chart, Future Work and Summary

Literature review summary:
Initially sectionalisers and PMAR's
Communication independent
Dead Time
Limited ability to reconfigure
Minimise customers affect upstream
Introduction of communication at sub and on 11k network:
Remote switching to reduce CML
Control Engineer
Greater visibility on network

Still very poor visibility overall
Post Fault Restoration
+
=

Ensure Automated Analysis code works on all networks
Get a working algorithm to represent the dynamic one used in the Midlands
Incorporate load flow and fault Level calculations into restoration
Explore meshed reconfiguration
Steady state reconfiguration for optimasation

Design of three networks -Urban,Rural and Semi-Rural
Have WPD network authorisations
Visited Lamby Way to obtain required data
Entering into Neplan
Thank you for listening

Any questions please?
Future Work
Further research into using smart meter data
Detailed analysis of SQC vs Dynamic restoration algorithms
Loadflow studies dependent on literature review results
Meshed operation
Load data for reconfiguration
Possibility of looking at PLC Communication method proposed by Stephen
Use RIIO incentive figures in NPL/Neplan studies
Detailed look into CML cost (£/Minute)
Gantt Chart
Summary
New V and I measurement technologies have potential to greatly improve visibility on 11kV networks
PLC in the past has focused on broadband communication
A number of issues to overcome before PLC could be reliable implemented with narrowband technology
RIIO has large incentives for DNO's which actively invest in their network
SQC restoration algorithms operate 80% of the time with potential of improving using loadflow and dynamic analysis
Substantial progress made with NPL coding and Modelling
Will keep up to date and realistic
Will be used as a progress guide


List of proposed payment levels for a range of different scenarios/conditions
Apply these costs (e.g. £72 per customer) to each of the networks
Integrate customer figures into our networks (e.g. 2000 customers fed from new lodge)
NIC
• Open to Network Licensees, bidding for funding for innovative Projects which could deliver
carbon or environmental benefits
for electricity customers and that would not be funded by the Network Licensee without additional funding being made available.
£27m available each year, running annually from April 2013- March 2021
Additional £3m for successful completion
DNO's will not be able to apply until 2015 the start of RIIO-ED1
Successfully Implemented in South Wales and South West
Collated data since scheme was implemented







Comparing with 'Dynamic Algorithm' used in Midlands and other DNO's
Identify key improvements which can be financially justifiable with the RIIO-ED1 incentive scheme
New Lodge Network
WPD's LV Sensors Report reviews Current LV Monitoring Systems for 11kV/415V Transformers
On-site assessment was conducted with 28 substations

4 Substations each per manufacturer

Mix of outdoor and indoor substations
NEPLAN / NPL
Improvements
Improved branching code in NPL
Now supports the following networks:
Radial, Loop and Mesh
Intelligently navigates open lines, etc.
Developments
Detailed information for each node
Detailed information for all lines
Additional parameters such as distance from primary S/S included

Future Developments
Reliability module to place faults around network
Make use of new network data (customers on a node)
Output financial implications using data from RIIO/ED1
Continue to develop framework for tools - easy analysis of the network through:
tabulated data
graphs

Communications
Various types of communicating data
Power Line Communication(PLC)
GPRS
Telephone line, etc.
What each offer and consequences.
Focusing on Narrowband PLC
Minimum data required
Data Transfer.

OFDM (Multiple sub-carriers) technology.
Coupling capacitors approx. £1000.
Coupling inductors are much less.
Software costs.
Broadband - High attenuation. Interference. Repeaters = Expensive.
NB - PLC: PRIME and G3-PLC.

Communications
GPRS –
GPRS modem with customised chip connected to RTUs and Substations.
Modem connected with RS232/485. Universal GPRS coverage.
Have to setup with a mobile communications provider.
Only charged when using and not continuously.
Location dependent connection.

Telephone line –
Using line from local provider such as BT.
Costs include Setup, customer services, line rental.
Expensive, as continuously paying, even when not using.
Unreliable as broadcasting towers or lines going down, can cause problems. Not ideal especially for peak usage times.

Data Transfer –
V and I magnitudes, Power factor angle. Start, Stop, Serial No., Timestamp and Checksum.
Data = 1kb. NB-PLC with 200kbps data rate, approx. 5ms duration.
Delay spread, ISI, etc. means longer duration = less transmissions.
NB-PLC - PRIME alliance - Symbol length of approx. 2ms.
ENMAC (SCADA/DMS) is updated every 60 seconds. Device transmit every 30 seconds.


Broadband PLC at 2-30MHz with >1Mbps and Narrowband PLC at 200-500kHz with 200kbps.
Definitions
Neplan - Loadflow modelling software
NPL -Neplan Programming Language
RTU - Remote Terminal Unit
ENMAC - Distribution Management System
EMU - Electrical Mapping Tool
SQC - Sequential Logic Scheme
SQC Automation Scheme
Modelling Urban Network
Using Park Lane Primary (Cardiff) - All feeders
Used WPD software to accurately model
ENMAC
EMU
DINAS
Schematics entered into Neplan
Libraries for line and load data
Enter using NPL coding
Future Work
RIIO-ED1
Normal Operation
Backfeeding
Neplan and NPL coding
NPL Results
Voltage and Measurement
Smart Metering
According to the European Union Directive 2012/27/EC and following the Directive 2009/72/EC, “where the roll-out of smart metering is assessed positively, at least 80% of the consumers should be equipped with intelligent metering systems by 2020”

The recommended common minimum functional requirements are:
a) to provide readings to the customer and any third part
b) to update reading frequently enough for the customer
c) to allow remote reading
d) to allow two-way communication
e) to allow reading to be taken frequently enough for network planning (smart grids)
f) to support advanced tariffs
g) to support on/off supply and/or flow and/or power limitation
h) to provide secure data communication
i) to ensure fraud prevention and detection
j) to provide input/ export and reactive metering.

Smart Metering
Most households will have smart meters installed by their energy company between 2015 and 2020, although some energy companies are starting to install smart meters now. DECC
Energy suppliers will be in charge of the roll-out of smart meters rather than distribution networks.
cost £340 pounds per household. However, it will be recoup the money from the saving of the high bills.

Smart Metering
Benefits of smart

metering
Bulk data from network
Real time Data
Improve knowledge of disconnection of customers
Remote reading
Knowledge of DG on LV

Smart Metering
Project Outline
Investigating methods of improving the reliability on 11kV Distribution Networks:
Working in collaboration with WPD - Future Innovation
Looking at a variety of methods
Exploring both hardware and software options
Assess the financial viability of each improvement

Set by OFGEM
A method of setting the amount of money (allowed revenue) that can be earned by a DNO
DNO’s recover their allowed revenues from their charges to suppliers, who in turn pass these costs through to customers (16% of electricity bill)
Revenues are set to allow DNO’s to recover their network operating costs, whilst earning a reasonable return

Revenue = Incentives + Innovation + Outputs, Electricity Distribution edition 1
Price control commencing 2015-2023
Performance based model for setting DNO’s price controls, to encourage DNO’s to:
1) Put stakeholders at the heart of their decision making process
2) Invest efficiently to ensure continued safe and reliable services
3) Innovate to reduce network costs for current and future consumers
4) Play a full role in delivering a low carbon economy and wider environmental objectives

RIIO-ED1
Price Controls
Future Work
Network Modelling
Design three networks
Urban
(Park Lane, Cardiff)
Rural
Semi-Rural
(New Lodge, Llanelli)
Rural network TBD
Obtained WPD network authorisations
Visited Lamby Way to obtain required data
Constructing networks in NEPLAN
Still confirming rural network
NEPLAN Programming Language
Create custom programs for NEPLAN
Automate tedious data input
Automate complex routines
post-fault restoration algorithm
Uses Microsoft C++
Extremely flexible and powerful
Full transcript