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Transcript of Phoenicia
By, Joey Bosco
and Maddie Brandon
The mainland was a thin strip of land between mountains and the Mediterranean Sea, about 20 miles wide and 200 miles long.
The Phoenicians established many settlements, and discovered many places.
Their largest settlement was Carthage, which survived long past Phoenicia itself, to Roman times, and was Rome's main opposer.
Some scholars believe they may have visited the Americas, due to Phoenician- like symbols found on tablets.
The Phoenicians had a vast Tin and Silver trade route all throughout the Mediterranean, causing their culture to spread throughout it.
Accomplishments and Inventions
The base of many modern alphabets
The first Law school
One of the first to use paper money (Out
Pythagoras came from Phoenicia
Purple dye (Will go into more detail about
The first theory of the atom
The North Star (Used to navigate)
First intentional makers of glass
First to circumnavigate Africa
Government and Laws
Phoenician city-states were not united.
Kingship appears to be the oldest form of Phoenician government.
The most supreme towns were Tyre, Sidon, Bertytus, Byblos, and Aradus. These towns constantly competed for trade.
The Phoenicians allowed polygamy.
The Phoenicians were familiar with all forms of slavery: of origin, of convention, of war and of punishment.
Religion and Ethical Beliefs
Phoenicians were polytheistic. The main gods that they worshiped were:
El- protector of the universe
Baal or Melqart- symbolized the annual growing seasons and was the weather and storm god
Astarte- Goddess of fertility, sexuality, and war.
Eshmum- god of healing
Sacrifices were an important part
of Phoenician religion.
They gained a reputation for cruelty
because of their many human sacrifices.
They were also thought to have offered their children as sacrifices to the gods.
Religious Temples were
probably small but they had
large staffs that included:
priestesses, priests, servants,
musicians, bakers, and etc.
Members of the royal family
served as the most important priests.
Occupations and Social Classes
The predominant jobs in Phoenicia were merchants and traders.
The Phoenicians were known as the greatest Seafarers in the ancient world.
The king was the most powerful
Social class was the top class which included priests, government officials, and land owners.
The middle class included merchants, craftspeople, farmers, and fishermen.
The working class included slaves and servants.
Economy and Trade
Phoenicians were a trading empire.
They mainly traded tin, silver,
cedar and purple dye.
They got tin and silver by traveling to Spain and gathering the Spanish resources
They made purple dye by smashing
the murex snail which secreted
purple-red color. They then used
this to dye clothing purple.
They established many trading colonies with whom they traded.
The Phoenicians traded with mainly Greece and Egypt.
They might have traveled as far
as Britian and the Americas.
How/Why did they rise?
There are 4 main theories
on how Phoenicia rose,
that they came from the Red
Sea, that they arose from the Caananites, that they were formed
by Sea People, and that they were formed because of the Sea People.
How/Why did they fall?
Phoenicia's final decline was in 332 B.C.E.
Alexander the Great from Greece conquered
Tyre after an eight-month siege. However
the Phoenician colony, Carthage, lasted
until about 146 B.C.E. when it was conquered by Rome
Greeks absorbed all that remained of the Phoenician culture
Reece. Katherine. The Phoenicians: Mysterious Sea People. Vero Beach, Fla: Rourke Pub., 2005
"Phoenicians Government and Politics." 2012. Phoenicia. November 4 2012 <http://phoenicia.org/govern.html>
"Ancient Phoenician Hierarchy." 2012. HierarchyStructure. October 30 2012 <http://www.hierarchystructure.com/ancient-phoenician-hierarchy/>
Starr. Chester. A History of the Ancient World. New York: Oxford University Press, 1991.
Broida. Marian. Ancient Israelites and their neighbors: An Activity Guide. Chicago, Illinois: Chicago Review Press. 2003.
"Phoenicia." World History: Ancient and Medieval Eras. ABC-CL10, 2012. Web. 24 Oct. 2012.
"Geography of Phoenicia Canaan." 2012. Phoenicia.org. 4 Nov 2012 <http://www.phoenicia.org/geog.html>
"Phoenician colonies." 2012. Phoenicia.org. 4 Nov 2012 <http://www.phoenicia.org/colonies.html>
"Phoenician-Lebanese contributions to the world." 2012. MountLebanon.org. 4 Nov 2012 <http://www.mountlebanon.org,pheolebcontributions.html>
They expanded along the
route of the red arrows
The Phoenicians bordered Palestine, Syria, and The Mediterranean Sea, their colonies were mainly in Africa
The Sea People
What was one invention of the Phoenicians?
How did the Phoenicians Fall?
The Phoenicians were polytheistic, meaning
Fill in the Blank:
The Phoenicians used the Murex so much to
make their purple dye that they drove it into extinction.
The Phoenician alphabet has been termed "abjad." This means that the script contains no vowels.
The word "Phoenician" is derived from the ancient Greek word "phinikeia", meaning purple.
There are only 22 characters in the
Their Main cities were Sidon and Tyre. Both
of which still exist in Lebanon today.