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Child Labor

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Sarah Bennett

on 22 April 2014

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Transcript of Child Labor

What is Child Labor?
When did Child Labor begin?
What type of Jobs did children work?
Often described as work that deprives children of their childhood, potential, dignity, and is harmful to their physical and mental development.
Countries Without Child Labor Laws
-North Korea
Child Labor in Today's Industries
Why Children?
Children are vulnerable and easy to exploit
Children were less likely to protest or form unions
Children could be paid less than adults
Children are faster, steadier, and more agile than adults
Their size made it easier for them to squeeze into tight spaces
It is the use of children in industry or business especially when illegal or considered inhumane
There was a time when many U.S. children toiled
in factories for 70 hours a week, until child labor
laws went into affect in the 1900's. The Industrial
Revolution was a time where major changes in
agriculture, manufacturing, mining, transport,
and technology. At the beginning of the
Industrial Revolution, legislation about working
conditions did not exist in the factories, and as
the factories rapidly spread the owners needed large numbers of employees because they were cheap, and were not big enough, or educated to complain. Children shortly ended up working all types of industries.
Iqbal Masih
Iqbal Masih was a young boy born in 1983
Muridke, Pakistan. He is a symbol of abusive
child labor. At age 4 his family sold him to pay for their debt, to a local employer Everyday he would wake up at dawn and was bound in tight chains along with other children to prevent escape. He would work 14 hours a day, 7 days a week with only one 30 minute break per day. Iqbal stood less than 4 feet tall and weighed only 60 pounds. At age 10 he escaped slavery, but was caught and tied upside down for 5 hours. He escaped a 2nd time and joined the BLLF and traveled around the world telling his story to help stop child labor.
On April 12th 1995, Iqbal was fatally shot in Muridke by a man because of his influence on bonded labor. His funeral was attended by 800 mourners and his legacy still lives on today.
How did the Industrial Revolution affect children?
Iqbal Masih at age 12
Why is Child Labor Detrimental to Children
Children's skeletal systems are rapidly growing
Their organs and tissues are still growing
They have a greater risk of hearing loss
Their growing bodies have a greater need for food and rest
They absorb chemicals and quicker rates

Child labor began in large numbers in the beginning of the Industrial Revolution in the mid-1800s. The
Industrial Revolution was a period of time when
machines replaced humans in factories, but they
still needed people to help work. For example,
when the cotton gin was invented investors
bought/hired people to pick more cotton so that
they could use their cotton gins to clean cotton.
Child Labor met new extremes with the coming of Industrial Revolution.

Laws Today to prevent Child Labor
Today, laws regarding age requirements, wages, work hours, permits, health and safety have been passed in an attempt to eliminate child labor in the United States.
Even with these laws in place, the codes are constantly violated and result in the continuation of child labor around the world.
Three young boys pictured here
are working on a
Child Labor Today

Today, they are an estimated 246 million children engaged in child labor worldwide.
Around 180 million children, aged between 5 and 17, are believed to be working in hazardous conditions in mines and working with dangerous machinery.
Approximately 5.7 million children are forced into debt bondage or other forms of slavery, while an additional 1.8 million are forced into prostitution, and 600,000 are engaged in illicit activities.
In 2005, approximately 5.7 million children were forced and bonded into labor.
Child labor is when children from the age of 3-17 years work in industries, mines, glass factories, textiles, and canaries.
About 12.6 million kids are in child labor in India. The kids who are child workers in India do not get proper nutrition, shelter, and some do not have a family.
China's child labor is a major problem, and is increasing.There is an estimated amount of 10 million kids are out of school, and over 5 million are working in factories. Although China has a law that children are not allowed to work under the age of 16, the government says under special circumstances children under 16, can work.
Haiti has had a lot of trouble over the past years and children are mostly affected here. In Haiti the population is 10.17 million people out of that amount, 8.4 people are working. Each year, 200 children die from labor, because they work in unhealthy, and sometimes fatal circumstances.
Some companies today that use Child Labor include:
Coca Cola
Victoria's Secret
Old Navy
Factors that may increase the health, safety, and developmental risk factors for children include:
Industrial Revolution
Child Labor Today
Effects from the Industrial Revolution
Children in the 1800s plowing on a
Child Labor in the 1800's

Sarah Bennett & Alora Greene

In these pictures, children are being forced to work in dangerous working conditions with no right to protest.
Young boys working in the mines. The mines were very hazardous, and could cause breathing problems, or even death.
Child labor still continues today, but Asia currently holds the most workers.
Wages & Hours
During the 19th century children worked long hard hours for very little pay. Some children worked up to 19 hours a day with a total of a 1 hour break.
Children started to gain rights as workers.
The owners of companies were responsible for the long hours and low wages that these kids had.
Changes were made to the hours and the amount of money the kids were paid.
Low wages and long hours were given to children in many companies all threw out the United States.
Owners of companies took advantage of young workers.
The Industrial revolution gave many business owners a chance to make a lot of product and play child little money for all the merchandise they made.
In 1836 the first child labor law was enforced.
The first labor law was enforced in Massachusetts.
These labor laws got children out of the working force and gave them a chance to go to school and have a childhood.
Causes of child labor
There were many causes of child labor. Money has the biggest role in child labor. Company owners were more interested in money than who is working for them.
Mostly all companies contributed in the process with created child labor.
In the beginning of the industrial revolution children started to become hired.
Owners wanted to get more profits so the less they paid the more profit they made.
The International Labor Organization estimates that 215 million children are working at this very moment, working in places that are known as not legal, and where children are used to their full advantages.
Effects on the children
Beyond the topic of safety, children working lengthy hours had limited access to education. Many families relied on income earned by each family member and did not allow children to attend school at all. Those fortunate enough to be enrolled often attended only portions of a school day or only a few weeks at a time.

This limited the amount of opportunity that children had from a very young age.
Furman Owens, 12 years old. Can't read, and doesn't know his A,B,C's. He said, "Yes I want to learn but I can't when I work all the time."
Walsh-Healey Act.
It requires contractors engaged in the manufacturing or furnishing of materials, supplies, articles, or equipment to the U.S. government or the District of Columbia to pay employees who produce, assemble, handle, or ship goods under contracts exceeding $10,000, the federal minimum wage for all hours worked.
It also establishes overtime as hours worked in excess of 8 hours per day or 40 hours per week, sets the minimum wage equal to the prevailing wage in an area, and sets standards for child and convict labor, as well as job sanitation and safety.
Walsh-Healey Act or Walsh-Healey Public Contracts Act, is a United States federal law passed in 1936.
Overall, Child labor began to decline as the labor and reform movements grew and labor standards in general began improving, increasing the political power of working people and other social reformers to demand legislation regulating child labor.
1938 Fair Labor Standards Act

What was done?
In 1916 the first federal child labor law prohibits movement of goods across state lines if minimum age laws are violated
In 1924 congress passes a constitutional amendment giving the federal government authority to regulate child labor, but too few states ratify it and it never takes effect

The Fair Labor Standards Act (FLSA) establishes minimum wage, overtime pay, record keeping, and youth employment standards affecting full-time and part-time workers in the private sector and in Federal, State, and local governments.
In 1937 second attempt to ratify constitutional amendment giving federal government authority to regulate child labor falls just short of getting necessary votes

In 1904 National Child Labor Committee forms and
aggressive national campaign for federal child labor law reform begins
How Does This Effect Education?
This means no proper education. Children who are lucky to go to school are usually pulled out to work. Others have never had the opportunity to go to school at all. Also when they finish work they go home and they have to take care of the family. In 2006 approximately 75 million children were not in school and that means
most of those kids might be going to work. Millions of kids are missing their education.

The World around us Today
United States has child labor laws now, but other places still have problems with Child Labor.
Children employers expected to much of their underage employees.
The Industrial Revolution was a time where smoke filled the air from working machinery, and child labor was apart of the everyday life.
Children barely got any education, due to working every day of the week, making it so they couldn't have a life outside labor.
Children got very little or no pay.
Children worked every day, leaving no time to earn an education for their future.
In the U.S. the hourly wage is extremely low, especially for the number of hours employees work.
Even though there are laws in place in the U.S. child labor still continues at this very second.
There are more girls working compared to boys.
These are the states that have/ or have had Child Labor.
Children over worked their bodies, causing some to not develop as much as kids who didn't work.
The fight to end Child Labor
These were some of the things the Fair Labor Standards Act tried to protest. For the children to have a life outside of work, to go to school, and have better health.
This is the amount of under-aged workers in different part of the country.
An estimated 60% of child labor occurs in agriculture, fishing, farming, hunting, and forestry. Children in commercial agriculture can face long hours in extreme temperatures, health risks from pesticides, little or no pay, and inadequate food, water, and sanitation.
About 14 million children are estimated to be directly involved in manufacturing good.
Mining & Quarrying
Child Laborers suffer extremely high illnesses and injury rates in underground mines, opencast mines, and quarries. Children as young as 6 years old break up rocks, wash, sieve, and carry ore. Nine year olds work underground setting explosives and carrying loads.
Domestic Service
Many children, mostly girls, work in domestic service as young as 5 years old. This type of labor is linked to child trafficking. Domestic child laborers can be victims of physical, and emotional abuse.

What is Child Labor?

Children from India involved in Child Labor.
Children from China involved in Child Labor.
Children from Haiti involved in Child Labor.
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