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China Prezi

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Julie Kallini

on 21 January 2016

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Transcript of China Prezi

China
Julie Kallini
Period I
10,000 BCE - 600 BCE
Period II
600 BCE - 600 CE
Period III
600 CE - 1450 CE
Period IV
1450 CE - 1750 CE
Period V
1750 CE - 1900 CE
Period VI
1900 CE - Present
Chinese River Valley Civilization
1600 BCE - 1029 BCE
Shang Dynasty
Developed along Huanghe (Yellow) River in the North China plain
Yangshao culture began in 4000 BCE
Later superceded by Longshan culture
Maintained considerable isolation
Some trade contact made with India and the Middle East
Huanghe civilization subject of many Chinese legends
Praised godlike kings
Ancestor of Chinese: P'an Ku
Elaborate concept of their origins
Recorded part-fact, part fiction history of early kings
Organized state with regulated irrigation
Wheat, millet, and rice cultivation
Advanced technology and intellectual life by 2000 BCE
Horse riding, pottery, bronze and iron metalworking with coal
Writing progressed
Knotted ropes and scratches of lines on bone
Ideographic symbols
Science, particularly astronomy
Art with delicate designs and music
Simple houses made of mud
Model of the Yangshao village of Jiangzhai
Created many of humankind's basic machines and engineering principles; silk manufacturing
Decline brought by invasions
More open to invasions than most River Valley Civilizations
Chinese forced to build military to defend against nomads
Greater sense of identity because of contrasting cultures
Shang decline less devastating than other river valley civilizations
Line of Kings that ruled in Huanghe valley
Founders seen as "philosopher-kings"; revered for thousands of years
Irrigation, dike systems, millet and wheat cultivation
Provided basis for innovations and expansion of subsequent dynasties
Impressive tombs and palaces
Fortified towns and villages
Stamped earth walls
Worship of heaven and veneration of ancestors
Shang Oracle Bone Script
Shang oracles created writing system that would persist among elites of Chinese civilization
Developed by Shang scholar-bureaucrats
Emerged as dominant force in Chinese culture and society
Chinese characters provided basis for education system and bureaucracy for thousands of years
Shang artistic expression often included high level of metalworking ability
Vessels were elaborately decorated and cast in bronze
Ritual vessels often included mythical creatures
1029 BCE - 258 BCE
Zhou Dynasty
Cycle
Dynastic
Chinese
A dynastic pattern was set in motion that would last until the early 20th century
A family of kings (dynasty) starts ruling with great vigor: strong political institutions and active economy
Dynasty grows weaker: tax revenues decline, social divisions increase
Internal rebellions and invasions bring further decline to ruling dynasty, which is replaced by family of successful general, invader, or peasant rebel
Boundaries of Shang China
Dynasty came into China from north, displacing Shang rulers
Established on the Huanghe River Valley
Politics/Government
Zhou claimed direct links to Shang rulers
Asserted the Mandate of Heaven
Ruled through alliance system with regional princes and noble families
Rulers gave large regional estates to family members and other supporters
Relied on loyalties and obligations of landlord vassals
Supporters provided troops and tax revenues for the central government
Central rule complicated with empire's expansion to the Yangtze River valley
Communication/transport limited
The Mandate of Heaven was established by Zhou to justify overthrow of Shang. Emperors became known as the Sons of Heaven.
Economy
Region from Huanghe River to Yangtze River called "Middle Kingdom"
Rich agricultural lands:
Wheat-growing north
Rice-growing south
Encouraged population growth
Hydraulic engineering used to regulate irrigation
Yangtze River
Culture
Provided greater cultural unity in empire
Discouraged primitive religious practices like human sacrifice
Urged restrained ceremonies to worship gods
Believed in gods, but little attention given to nature of deities
Leaders stressed the importance of a harmonious earthly life
Carefully constructed rituals that unified society and prevented individual excess
Ceremonies venerated ancestors and marked special meals
Use of chopsticks and tea began at end of Zhou dynasty
Encouraged politeness during meals
Rulers promoted linguistic unity
Mandarin Chinese - standard spoken language
Used by educated officials
Oral epics and stories gradually recorded in written form
Amid Zhou collapse, thinkers and religious prophets challenged traditions
Daoism
Confucianism
Founded by Kung Fuzi (Confucius)
Devoted to teaching
Traveled throughout China
Preached ideas of political virtue and good government
Secular - not a religious leader
System of ethics for community
Emphasized personal virtue to maintain a solid political life
Society's leaders must behave modestly without excess
Moderate behavior, veneration of custom and ritual, and love of wisdom should characterize leaders
Rulers should have proper family virtues
Humility and sincerity
Rulers should not be greedy
Respect for one's superiors
Self restraint and careful socialization of children
Obedience and respect
Still, education available to all talented and intelligent members of society
Kindness and protection of the people's vital interests
Doctrine recorded in Analects
Appeared during the
same time as
Confucianism
Founded by Laozi
Nature contains a divine impulse that directs all life
Dao, "the way of nature"
Appealed to upper class
Elaborate spirituality
Centered on nature's harmony and mystery
Humility and frugal living
Political activity, learning, and worldly life have little importance
Produced a durable division in China's religious and philosophical culture
Didn't spread much out of China
Chinese intellectual heritage stresses the importance of balance of opposites, as exemplified by the
yin
and
yang
.
An individual should seek a way, called Dao, to relate to the harmony of nature while avoiding excess.
Era of the Warring States

Regional rulers formed independent armies
Zhou emperors became figureheads
Zhou system disintegrated
Philosophies of Confucianism and Daoism gain more popularity
Offset the tragedy of dynastic decline
402 BCE - 201 BCE
221 BCE - 206 BCE
Qin Shi Huangdi deposed the last Zhou emperor
Made himself ruler within 35 years
Brutal but effective ruler
Qin Dynasty
Government
Politics/
Shi Huangdi worked vigorously to undo problem of regional aristocrats
Ordered nobles to appear at his court and assumed control over their feudal estates
China organized into large provinces ruled by bureaucrats appointed by emperor
Selected officials from non-aristocratic groups
Governors exercised military and legal powers
Specialties assigned to different ministers
Strong central authority
Single law code for entire empire
Expansion followed centralization
Chinese territory extended to the south (present-day Hong Kong and northern Vietnam)
Great Wall built in the north (3,000 miles)
Built by forced labor through peasants
Legalism
Form of political thought called “Legalism” created
Pragmatism
Authoritarian state ruled by force
The army would control the people and would labor
An image of the burning of Confucian books, a common occurrence under Shi Huangdi's rule.
Rose to power after Shi Huangdi’s death in 210 BCE
Gained power during peasant revolts
Han Dynasty
206 BCE - 220 CE
Politics/Government
Retained centralized administration of Qin without the violence
Expansion: pushed into Korea, Indochina, and central Asia
Contact with India and Middle East
Trade with the Roman Empire
Still, remained the attack on local warrior-landlords
Maintained a large, highly skilled bureaucracy
Operated military and judicial systems, but not highly militaristic
System of courts with strict code of law
Declined after 2 centuries
Weak central control
Invasions from central Asia by nomads called Huns
Most famous ruler: Wu Ti (140-87 BCE)
Enforced peace throughout Asia
Workings of the state bureaucracy improved
Established examinations for his bureaucrats
Formal training based on the values of Confucian philosophy
Covered classics of Chinese literature
Occasionally allowed lower ranking members of society to be recruited into bureaucracy
Check on complete upper-class rule
Established school to train men of talent and ability for exams
Wu Ti
Economy
Imperial government active in the economy
Organized the production of iron and salt
Sponsored public works – irrigation, canal systems
Regulated agricultural supplies; stored grain and rice
Controlled price increases when harvests were bad
Greater trade
Luxury items for upper class; silks, jewelry, leather goods, furniture
Copper coins circulated
Still, moneymaking scorned (Confucian society)
Important inventions contribute to economy
New collar for draft animals
Iron mining
Textiles and pottery
First water-powered mills
Paper invented
Compasses
Porcelain
Demand for Chinese goods for trade generated a network of roads in central Asia known as the Silk Roads
Won attention in upper-class and governent circles


Expanse of the Silk Roads during Han China.
Culture
Considerable class gaps: upper class had large estates, and masses were barely self-sufficient
Land-owning aristocrats + bureaucrats “Mandarins” – 2% population
Masses (Peasants and Urban artisans) – dues and service to lords; prop. not regulated individually
“Mean” people – unskilled jobs + performing artists (had green scarves and harsher punishments)
Few slaves by Zhao dynasty – considered Mean People
Thinkers of Han Dynasty elaborated Confucian philosophy
Five Classics used in examinations
Emphasis on human life
Poetry commanded attention
Mark of education among Chinese
Art featured careful detail and craftsmanship
Precision and geometric qualities
Calligraphy
Painting, working bronze and pottery, carving jade and ivory, woven silk
Important practical work encouraged in science
Accurate calendar
Calculated movements of the planets Saturn and Jupiter
Medicine and anatomy
Mathematics
Confucianism
Art
Sciences
Society
Six Dynasties Period
220 CE to 589 CE
Cao Wei (220–265)
Jin Dynasty (265–420)
Liu Song Dynasty (420–479)
Qi Dynasty (479–502)
Liang Dynasty (502–557)
Chen Dynasty (557–589)
Yuan Dynasty
1271-1368
Cultural differences established between Mongols and Chinese
Forbade Chinese scholars to learn Mongol script
Ethnic Chinese forbidden to marry Mongols or selected for harem
Mongol religion and ceremonial customs remained
Chinese scholar-gentry saw Mongols as uncouth barbarians endangering Chinese traditions
Alienated because of no examination system
Bolstered positions of artisans and merchants
Improved transportation and expanded supply of paper money
Built navy quickly – helped in conquest of Song and put down pirates
Urban life prospered in Yuan era
Poetry and essay writing weakened
Musical dramas flourished
Song loyalist revolts in south
Military prowess tarnished after Japanese defeats in 13th century Kubilai’s successors lacked capacity for leadership
Muslim and Chinese functionaries enriched themselves (corruption)
Greater pressures on peasantry because of taxes and labor
Widespread banditry and piracy, famine
Religious sects like White Lotus Society
Dedicated to overthrow dynasty
Period of chaos until next Chinese dynasty
Mongol forces guided by Kubilai Khan
One of the grandsons of Chinggis Khan
Assumed title of great khan in 1260
Sieged Chinese cities from 1235 to 1279
Changed dynasty name to Yuan in 1271 and set out to establish permanent Mongol control
New hierarchy
1) Mongols
2) Central Asian nomadic and Muslim allies
3) North Chinese
4) Ethnic Chinese and minority peoples
Enacted reforms for peasantry
Cropland kept and granaries restored
Reduced peasant tax and forced labor
Elementary education in the villages
Gender roles of Mongol and Chinese culture
Mongol women refused footbinding
Retained rights to property and control within the household
Chabi, Kubilai’s wife, exemplifies women’s freedoms
Confidant in political and diplomatic matters
Promoted Buddhist interests
Reconciled major ethnic Chinese population to Mongol rule
Kubilai Khan was fascinated with Chinese culture
Surrounded himself with Buddhism, Daoist, and Confucian advisors
Introduced Chinese rituals and classical music
However, discontinued civil service exams
Kubilai Khan had cosmopolitan tastes
Drew scholars, artists, artisans to Yuan dynasty
Muslims and Persians brought to court to incorporate Middle Eastern advances and technology
Efficient tax collection, astronomy, calendars, maps, and medicine
Emissaries from foreign lands
Marco Polo
Kubilai Khan
Culture
Social System
Under
Kubilai Khan's wife, Chabi.
Mongols
Decline
A White Lotus symbol. Fictional forms of the White Lotus Society have appeared in our current popular culture, such as the cartoon
Avatar: The Last Airbende
r and the video game
Mortal Kombat
.
1368-1644
Ming Dynasty
Ming Dynasty began in Period III, but lasted through most of Period IV*
Zhu Yuanzhang conquered most of China
Poor peasant who suffered during famines of Mongol rule
Became a military leader of rebel band
Declared himself Hongwu emperor in 1368
New Politics/Government

Erased culture of Mongols
Mongol dress, names, and palaces were discarded
Mongols fled or were driven out
Saw revival of scholar gentry as essential to Chinese civilization
Confucian classics training restored
Subsidies to imperial academies and colleges
Examinations played a greater role than in any previous dynasty
County exams given two out of three years
Those who passed eligible to take next level of exams
Extremely competitive
Success brought better status
Reformed court politics
Set limits on scholar-gentry’s influence
Gave chief minister’s power to emperor
Encouraged honesty, loyalty, and discipline through public beatings for incompetent or corrupt bureaucrats
Limited court factionalism
Emperor’s wives should come from humble origins
Limited number of eunuchs allowed in capital city
Exiled potential rivals to estates in provinces
Condoned thought control
Improved the lives of the common people
Economy

Public works projects
Dike building and irrigation systems
Brought new lands under peasant-owned cultivation
Lowered forced labor demands
Promoted silk and cotton cloth production
Offset by the growing power of rural landlord families
Government members exempted from land taxes and given special privileges
Engaged in money-lending and lucrative gambling
Often bought up land held by peasants or foreclosing loans
Larger and more comfortable households for gentry
Commercial and population boom
Aided by introduction of new crops from Americas, like maize, sweet potatoes, and peanuts
Could be grown on inferior soils without irrigation in the Yangtze region
Important against famine and caused population growth
Renewal of commercial growth through domestic economy and overseas trade
Silk, tea, ceramics, and lacquer ware were appealing to Europeans
China gained most American silver than any other society
Europeans traded at Macao and Canton
Subordination of women to men and youth to elders
Neo-Confucianism more influential than Song and Yuan dynasties
Suppressed challenges to rigid social roles
Students killed for challenging professors
Student protest driven underground
Women driven underground through subordination
Still, upper-class women had strong roles behind the scenes
Daughters of upper-class families taught to read and write
Women’s success within the family depended on bearing male children
Most common women hoped the emperor would take them as concubines
Most avenues for independence were through jobs of courtesans or entertainers
Organization
Social
Expansion/Global Contacts
During Reign of Yunglo, admiral Zhenghe led seven major expeditions overseas
Desire to explore and proclaim glory of Ming Empire
Explored as far as Persia, southern Arabia, and east coast of Africa
First fleet – 62 treasure ships; 28,000 sailors, merchants, and soldiers; each ship 400 feet long
Chinese Retreat and Isolationism
China purposely moved from position of great overseas power to an isolated empire
Edicts limiting overseas commerce; fleet declined dramatically in number and quality
Europeans probed farther; Christian missionaries infiltrated Chinese coastal areas
Jesuits used “top down” strategy among rulers and chief advisers
Jesuits realized that sciences and technology were keys to maintaining interest
Jesuit scholars spent time in imperial city fixing clocks, calendars, cannons, and astounding the Chinese
Many officials were suspicious of the strange looking “barbarians”
Ming emperors remained fascinated
Art/Culture
Merchant classes benefited from long distance trade
State and scholar gentry still reaped rewards
Land owning remained surest route to social status
Fine arts by court and scholar-gentry
More colorful than previous dynasties
Portraits, court, city, country life, mountains, lakes, marshes
Major innovation in literature with the development of the Chinese novel
Literacy facilitated by woodblock printing
Decline
After Ming retreat, fell into pattern of dynastic decline
Incompetent men occupied throne and isolated by eunuchs
Officials corrupted
Public works fell into disrepair
Floods, drought, and famine ravaged land
Peasants starved, eating tree bark, feces, or people
Local landlords took advantage of desperate peasantry
Increased flight, banditry, and open rebellion
Foreign threats and assaults by nomadic peoples
Attacks from Manchus and Japanese pirates
Dynasty toppled in 1644 by rebellion within
Last emperor, Chongzhen, committed suicide



Qing Dynasty
1644-1911
Manchu nomads’s invasion of China was unexpected
Nurhaci – Architect of Manchu unity
Combined cavalry of tribes in to banner armies
Brought much of Manchuria under his rule
Harassed Chinese north of Great Wall
During time, adopted Chinese ways quickly
Bureaucracy, court ceremony, scholar-officials
Manhcus gained opportunity to seize control due to declining Ming regime
1644 – Chinese official called Manchus to help put down rebellion
Took advantage – captured Beijing and exploited political and social divisions to gain control of rest of China
Retained much of political and cultural traditions of Ming
Added Confucian rituals to calendar
Pardoned those who prolonged their conquest
Allowed many Chinese to highest posts in bureaucracy
Manchus got most posts, but few limits put on Ethnic Chinese
Retained examination systems and education of Confucian classics
Mandate of Heaven
Politics/Government
Economy and Society
Commercial and urban expansion gained new strength during peaceful Qing era
Regional diversification in crops
New ways to finance agricultural and artisan production
Profited from silver and exports of tea, porcelain, and silk textiles
Chinese merchants freed from overseas restrictions
Compradors – Wealthy new group of Chinese merchants under the Qing dynasty
Qing led conservative approach to Chinese society
Upheld writings of Zhu Xi
Acceptance of Hierarchy in education and imperial edicts
Extended family core unit (suspicious of guilds or secret societies)
Lives of women confined to household
Chose brides from families of lower status to ensure male control
Daughters less desirable than sons
Loss to parents’ household, dowry
Infanticide went up
Best a woman could do was receive strong backing from father or brother
Tried to alleviate rural distress, including tax and state labor demands
Free tenure to those who resettled lands
10% of imperial budget devoted to repairing dikes, canals, roads, and irrigation
Encouraged peasants to grow more crops and new plants
Regime had little success to control landlord classes
Added to estates by calling in loans to peasants or buying them out
Increased the gap between rural gentry and peasants
Decline
18th century – signs of decline clear; resembled previous Chinese dynasties
Exam system riddled with cheating and favoritism
Sons of high officials ensured a place
With enough money, could buy posts; bribery and blatant cheating overlooked
Diversion of revenue to rich individual families caused devastation
Funds needed to maintain armies and fleet fell
Reductions in spending on public works projects
Dikes of Huanghe River – caused devastating leakages
Further signs of dynastic decline
Food shortages and landlord demands prompted mass migrations
Vagabonds and beggars crowded streets
Banditry became major problem in districts
British beat China at sea; gunboats destroyed junks
Qing emperor forced to sue for peace and exile Lin
European victories forced China to open trade and diplomatic changes
Hong Kong and five other ports opened
Built more warehouses and living quarters
More than 300,000 American and European traders, diplomats and missionaries
China’s foreign trade and customs were overseen by British official

Issue responsible for hostility: British merchants had little raw materials to trade for porcelain/tea
Used silver bullion and later Opium
Huge amounts in demand in south China coast
Opium War – Fought between the British and Qing China beginning in 1839; fought to protect British trade in opium; resulted in resounding British victory, opening of Hong Kong as British port of trade
Chinese realized that Opium traffic was a threat to economy and social order
World trade balance was reversed; exported silver
Public works, trade, and agricultural productivity decreased
Unemployment spread
Wealthy Chinese squandered China’s wealth for habits
18th century, forbid opium traffic; 19th century – enforced it
1820s – officials drove opium dealers to islands and hidden locations
Lin Zexu – Distinguished Chinese official during the early 19th century; charged with stamping out the opium trade in southern China
Ordered blockade of British ships at Canton
British merchants enraged: violated property rights and free trade
British fought with military intervention
Opium Wars
Rebellions
Hong Xiuquan – Leader of the Taiping rebellion; converted to specifically Chinese form of Christianity; attacked traditional Confucian teachings of Chinese elite
Taiping Rebellion – Broke out in south China in the 1850s and early 1860s; led by Hong Xiuquan, a semi-Christianized prophet; sought to overthrow Qing dynasty and Confucian basis of scholar gentry
First movement to threaten Confucian civilization as a whole
Social reform, land redistribution, liberation of women
Attacked learning on which scholar gentry’s power rested
Scholar officials raised effective military forces in time to fend off assault in China
Zeng Guofan – reforms to root out corruption and improve economy
Self-strengthening movement – dynamic provincial leaders encouraged countering challenge from west

Taiping Rebellion
Manchu rulers still stubbornly resisted the reforms
Ignored desperate situation of country (including loss to Japan in 1894-95 war)
Backlash of members of imperial household
Cixi – Dowager empress; crushed serious moves toward reform
Relied on divisions among provincial officials and European powers to maintain her position
Boxer Rebellion – Popular outburst in 1898 aimed at expelling foreigners from China; failed because of intervention of armies of Western powers in China; defeat of Chinese enhanced control by Europeans and the power of provincial officials
Boxer Rebellion
Battle scene of a British assault during the Second Opium War (or Arrow War; 1856–60); undated illustration.
End of Qing
Sun Yat-sen – Head of Revolutionary Alliance, organization that led 1911 revolt against Qing dynasty in China; briefly elected president in 1911, but yielded in favor of Yuan Shikai in 1912; created Nationalist party of China (Guomindang) in 1919; died 1925
Revolutionaries deeply hostile to involvement of imperialist powers
Condemned Manchus for failing to control foreigners
Secret societies/assassinations and acts of sabotage
1911 – Revolution due to government’s reliance on Western powers for railway loans
Manchus had to abdicate; key provincial officials refused to put it down
Last emperor of China deposed and republican government was established
Puyi – Last emperor of China; deposed as emperor while still a small boy in 1912
1905 – civil service exams given for last time
Signaled end of pattern of civilized life in China that lasted 2500 years
May Fourth Movement
and Marxism
May Fourth Movement – Resistance to Japanese encroachments in China began on this date in 1919; spawned movement of intellectuals aimed at transforming China into a liberal democracy; rejected Confucianism
Merits of science, industrial technology, and democratic government
Liberation of women
Simplifying Chinese script
Western-style individualism
Li Dazhao – Chinese intellectual who gave serious attention to Marxist philosophy; headed study circle at University of Beijing; saw peasants vanguard of revolutionary communism in China
Most influential thinker of Marxist ideology
Heavy emphasis on renewal and harnessing vitality of youth
Peasantry as Vanguard of revolutionary change
Saw whole China as proletariat exploited by West; needed uprising
Li’s Chinese Marxism attracted students, including Mao Zedong
Guomindang
Guomindang – Chinese Nationalist party founded by Sun Yat-sen in 1919; drew support from local warlords and Chinese criminal underworld; initially forged alliance with Communist 1924; dominated by Chiang Kai-shek after 1925
After returning from exile in Japan, Sun Yat-sen tried to unify diverse political organizations
Wanted to give something to everyone
Unify China – strong central government
Bring imperialist intruders under control
Alleviate poverty of peasants and working class
Still, focused on Political and International issues over social reform
Whampoa Military Academy – Founded in 1924; military wing of the Guomindang; first head of the academy was Chiang Kai-shek
Founded with Soviet and Russian help
Chiang Kaishek – A military officer who succeeded Sun Yatsen as the leader of the Guomindang or Nationalist party in China in the mid-1920s; became the most powerful leader in China in the early 1930s, but his Nationalist forces were defeated and driven from China by the Communists after World War II
First head of the academy
Rose up in military through connections
Little time left to reforming economy and social conditions
Peasantry – 90% of population; in misery
Century of weak corruption
Weak Manchu rule
Qing collapse in 1911
Depredations of warlord
s
Mao's China
New Communist leaders’ goal – enact social revolution in rural areas
Land redistribution
Over 3 million landlords executed
Industrialization created problems
Supported urban workers, not peasants
Drew resources from countryside
Mao disliked intellectuals and elitism
Mass Line – became collectives
“let a hundred flowers bloom”
Nationalist Chiang Kai-Shek more concerned with putting down communists
Humiliated by Japanese invasion
Communist party gained more support
Guerrilla tactics successful against Japanese
Fought for support of peasantry
Determination to fight Japanese
Won support of peasants, students, intellectuals, and bureaucrats
Mao Zedong’s Great Leap Forward
Tried to restore mass, rural base
Industrialization pushed through small-scale projects integrated into the peasant communes
Caused problems
Peasant resistance to collectivization
Abuses of commune leaders
Dismal output of backyard furnaces
Drought
China had to import grain
Population issues
and Social Reform
Economic Growth
Mao’s Last Campaign and the Gang of Four
Cultural Revolution
Set back pragmatists
Supported by student Red Guard and People’s Liberation Army
Threatened to return China to pre-revolutionary troubles
Present-Day
Formal name:
People’s Republic of China (PRC)
After the PRC’s founding, four Constitutions have been successively formulated (1954, 1975, 1978, and 1982)
Capital:
Beijing
Head of State:
President Hu Jintao
Elected March 15, 2003
Political parties:
The Communist Party of China (CPC) is the country’s sole political party in power, though there are 8 other political parties in existence in China
CPC facts:
Founded in July 1921
Has more than 66 million members
Hu Jintao became general secretary of the CPC in November 2002
Currency:
Renminbi/yuan
Military:
People’s Liberation Army (PLA) includes the Army, Navy, Air Force, and the Second Artillery Force
Country’s top military commander:
Jiang Zemin
Political
Economic
A great deal of income is generated from tourists visiting Buddhist temples, caves, and grottoes
Economy has boomed since 1978
Result of sweeping economic reforms
GNP grew from $128 billion in 1980 to $745 billion in 1998
Religious
Established by Wendi, who regained for his empire areas of southern China
Wendi’s son, Yangdi:
Further expanded boundaries
Created milder law code
Brought back civil service tests
Built the Grand Canal to connect the North China Plain to the Yangtze River basin
Yangdi was assassinated in 618, and the dynasty was ended, as a result of:
His obsession for luxury
A failed attempt to gain control of Korea
Revolts by overworked laborers
Sui Dynasty
581-618
Excess and
Collapse
Yangdi – Second member of Sui dynasty; murdered his father to gain throne; restored Confucian examination system; responsible for construction of Chinese canal system; assassinated in 618
Drove back nomads to north
Milder legal code
Confucian education – examination system
Fond of luxury and construction
Canals
Palaces
New Loyang capital
Unsuccessfully tried to bring Korea under control
Led to revolts, bandit gangs, nomad regaining control, provincial governors independent
Retreated to Hangzhou; assassinated by own ministers
Tang Dynasty
618-907
Begun by Li Yuan, a previous official of Yangdi
Expanded past China’s present day borders
Civil service tests improved and bureaucracy grew in size and importance
Based on Confucian learning
Revival of Confucianism (neo-Confucianism); not welcoming of other philosophies such as Mahayana Buddhism
Declined when nomads took advantage of regional divisions

Politics/Government
In late Sui and early Tang, bureaucracy became more important than aristocracy
Power shared by imperial families and bureaucrats
Bureaucracy reached from imperial level to district level
Secretariats – 1) drafted imperial decrees; 2) monitored regional and provincial officials and local notables
Culture
New use of Confucian learning threatened Buddhist monks
Chinese monks gave Buddhism Chinese qualities
Pure Land – Emphasized Salvationist aspects of Chinese Buddhism; popular among masses of Chinese society
Zen – Known as Chan Buddhism in China; stressed meditation and the appreciation of natural and artistic beauty
Appealed to educated classes
Find ultimate wisdom and freedom from reincarnation
Poems – metaphors and riddles
Before Tang unification, Buddhism strong social, economic, and political force
Early Tang rulers still supported
Monasteries, emissaries to India, paintings/statues
Empress Wu - Tang ruler 690-705 CE in China; supported Buddhist establishment; tried to elevate Buddhism to state religion; had multistory statues of Buddha created
Pagodas
Followed by Anti-Buddhist backlash
Confucians/Daoists
Emperor Wuzong

Buddhist artwork found in China.
Song Dynasty
960-1271
Begun by Emperor Taizu
Constantly threatened by smaller kingdoms such as Xi Xia and the Liao dynasty and had to pay them tribute to prevent being invaded
Innovations and art:
Compass
Movable type
Landscape paintings
Southern Song dynasty created in 1127 after the Jin kingdom took northern Song lands
Taken over by Mongols in 1279
Politics/Government
Song inferior to Tang politically and militarily
Subordinated military to civilian administrators of scholar-gentry
Regional military commanders couldn’t seize power
Rotated to prevent power base
Civil service exams routinized, but many perks
Every 3 years, 3 levels: district, provincial, imperial
Salaries increased
Payments of luxury goods
Male servants
More examiners passed than Tang era
Zhou Kuangyin, or Emperor Taizu.
Culture
Zhu Xi - Most prominent of neo-Confucian scholars during the Song dynasty in China; stressed importance of applying philosophical principles to everyday life and action
Neo-Confucians - Revived ancient Confucian teachings in Song era China; great impact on the dynasties that followed; their emphasis on tradition and hostility to foreign systems made Chinese rulers and bureaucrats less receptive to outside ideas and influences
Cultivating personal morality
Virtue attained through knowledge, observation, and contact
Hostility to outside influence stifled innovation and critical thinking among Chinese
Encouraged age, class, and gender distinctions
Patriarch of house compared to male emperor of Chinese
Harmony if people conformed to their age and rank
If problems arose, consulted history and past
Women greatly subjugated in late Song; footbinding
The number of religious worshipers in China is estimated at well over 100 million, most of whom follow Buddhism
The philosophies of Confucianism and Daoism are extremely pervasive throughout China as well
Buddhism:
Three different forms of this religion have evolved—a result of social and ethnic diversity across China
The three forms are Han, Tibetan, and Southern Buddhism
Has left an indelible impact on Chinese civilization; colloquial phrases often make reference to Buddhism
Example: “to hold the foot of Buddha at the moment” (meaning: “to make a last-minute effort”)
In today’s China, Buddhism caves, temples, grottoes, and Holy Mountains are hotspots for tourism
Daoism:
Has emerged as a popular “folk religion”
In hopes to become immortal, Daoists shun earthly distractions of wealth, power, or knowledge
Confucianism:
People aim to master the Five Virtues of Confucianism, in much the same way as was done in previous decades
Social
Government workers/businessmen prosper at the expense of rural agriculture laborers
People covet status symbols such as luxury cars and designer clothing
These demonstrate success, especially in urban areas
In rural areas, such as those populated by the minority Uighurs and Tibetans, traditional tribal social customs and garbs still reign
Chinese place huge emphasis on lineage/family ties
Many men remain at home to care for their parents in old age
Even married couples often live with parents
Once a woman is married, she is expected to join her husband’s family, under the same roof as her in-laws
With the government’s one-child policy, there has been an ugly history of female infanticide and abandonment
Yet, under Communism, women have made great strides in professional and public life in recent years
World’s most populous country, with 1.3 billion people at the end of 2002
Population density: 134 people per sq km (4x that of US)
Most of the Chinese population lives in the middle and lower reaches of the Yellow River, Yangtze River, and Pearl River valleys, and the Northeast Plain
According to the Fifth National Population Census of 2000, China is composed of 56 ethnic groups
Han Chinese account for 91.59% of the population
Major languages spoken:
Standard Chinese or Mandarin (Putonghua, based on Beijing dialect)
Yue (Cantonese)
Wu (Shanghaiese)
Minbei (Fuzhou)
Minnan (Hokkien-Taiwanese)
Xiang
Gan
Hakka
Chinese food:
Peking Duck
Hotpot
Intellectual
Education is mandatory and prized both by the culture and by the state
The Communists, within 50 years, raised the literacy rate from 15 percent to over 75 percent.
From 1975, China has increased research funding, allowing for rapid and unparalleled breakthroughs in science and technology
Advances have been made in:
Nuclear weapons research
Regenerative medicine
Tissue engineering, gene therapy, and stem cell treatments
China is making particular headway because stem cell research is less controversial in Chinese culture
Satellite launching and recovery
First Chinese satellite, Dong Fang Hong I, was launched in 1970
China became the 3rd country to send humans to space
Yang Liwei’s spaceflight aboard Shenzhou 5
Biotechnology
Biotechnology has added 1 million jobs during the 2011-2015 period
Superconductivity
High-yield hybrid rice
Technology transfer
Artistic
As of 2007, there did not exist any museum of modern art in all of China
Contemporary art was undervalued
In 2007, a local government in Sichuan Province began to take notice of modern artists
Offered to give 8 contemporary artists their own personal museums to operate
The Chinese government actively supports the Chinese animation industry
Government funds 3D computer-generated imagery technology
May be due to a desire to increase Chinese soft power
Much of Hollywood’s postproduction is outsources to China
DreamWorks Animation is to set up a studio in Shanghai
As of 2012, the China Research Institute of Film Science and Technology and the China Film Group Corporation put into commercial use the DMAX motion picture film format
Described as a competitor to IMAX

PERSIA and Global Interactions
Mao Zedong’s death – Gang of Four
Failed, Pragmatists took over
Democratic capitalist reform, western influence
Private peasant production
Private enterprise
Mao Zedong
Deng Xiaoping
Interactions
1) Growing investment in US companies and companies around the world
More than $100 million in all industries, including energy, mining, real estate, and transportation
Accession to World Trade Organization in 2001
Works Cited
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Pictures
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Information
Shi Huangdi
Innovations in politics
National census to calculate tax revenues and labor service
Standardized coinage, weights, measures
Made Chinese written script uniform
Furthered agriculture, new irrigation projects, manufacturing
Great Wall
Grand Canal
Silk Roads reopened
Exported manufactured goods such as porcelain, silk, and paper
Increased overseas trade – used ships called junks
Paper money – credit vouchers
Banks
Still focused on and expanded agriculture
Executive department of six ministries
Bureau of Censors to check officials
Staff for imperial household and palaces
Changan – Capital of Tang dynasty; population of 2 million, larger than any other city in the world at that time
Capital city of Changan
Economy
Empress Wu
Model Junk ship
Song Landscape painting
Hangzhou - Capital of later Song dynasty; located near East China Sea; permitted overseas trading; population exceeded 1 million
Located between lake and river with crisscrossed canals and bridges
10 great marketplaces
Parks and gardens
Boating on Western Lake
Gaming, dining, listening to “singing girls”
Bath houses
Street performers
Tea houses/restaurants
Landscape paintings
Scholars tried to recover old texts – new academies and schools devoted to study
Present-day Hangzhou
Hongwu Emperor
Chinese woodblock printing
Failed "Backyard Furnaces" of Mao's Great Leap Forward
World's tallest Buddha statue in Henan, China
Workers in a Chinese factory
2) Influence from Western culture on Chinese intellectual advances and culture
Film industry
Sciences and medicine
3) Emergence as a manufacturing powerhouse
World's largest producer of manufactured goods
Surpassed United States in 2011
Global
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