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World War II
Transcript of World War II
Build up to war
Treaty of Versailles
Rise of Hitler
Improved Military Technology and Tactics
The global balance of economic and political power shifted after WWII evolved into the Cold War
These bombs used incendiary devices and chemicals. Initial bomb would spread fire to surrounding areas.
People would lose consciousness and burn to death.
The firebombing of Tokyo was part of the American air assault against Japan in 1945.
Theory of relativity
emphasized that a large amount of energy could be released from a small amount of matter
Treaty of Versailles
Extreme reparations required of Germany
Demilitarization of Germany
Loss of Territory for Germany
In Europe, leads to new political systems and ideologies.
Used to end the war in the Pacific Theater
Germany takes control of Austria and Czechoslovakia in early 1939
Start of the War
Hitler signs the Non-Aggression Pact with Soviet Union dividing up Poland and the Balkans
Britain and France threaten war if Hitler invades Poland
Rise of Hitler
Alliance with Mussolini in Italy and Japan
Hitler invades Poland on September 1, 1939
radical authoritarian nationalism
borrows from socialism, instead of class conflict focus on conflict between nations/races
view political violence and war as a means to national unity.
Mussolini and Hitler
Europe in ruins
Occupation of Germany
FDR starts a trade embargo (steel and oil) because of Japan's movements in China and SE Asia
Felt that they should control China and SE Asia, not Europeans
Japan thought if they could quickly gain control over Europe's colonial holdings in Asia they would have access to the necessary resources for defending their movements in China.
August 6th, 1945
August 9th, 1945
Spheres of influence
World War II is fought in two theaters
4.7 miles of city were destroyed
30% of the population (70,000-80,000) were killed in less than a second.
An additional 30,000-85,000 died by the end of 1945 from radiation and burns
Explosion generated temperature of 7,050 degrees and winds of 624 mph
40,000-75,000 died in Nagasaki
Total death numbers vary widely, ranging from 50 million to 80 million people. Deadliest military conflict in history.
Rise of the US and USSR
Cold War and the Nuclear Age
Rise of Nationalism and Independence movements in Africa
Warsaw - 1945
Occupation of Germany
Very charismatic speaker
Joined the German Workers’ Party in 1919
Appointed Chancellor in 1933
US emerges as a superpower
US provided economic support to help rebuild Europe
Goals: restore European cities, build industry and remove trade barriers
Independence in India
Started by Mohandas Gandhi in the 1920s
Organized non-violent protests against British colonial rule
Passive resistance Philosophy
While Gandhi was fighting for peace, religious tensions were increasing between Hindus and Muslims. Gandhi tried to unite them, but the Muslim league of India began to push for a seperate state
Britain granted independence to India in 1947
Gandhi wanted the subcontinent to remain united
Muslim leader, Muhammad Ali Jinnah, wanted to
form a second nation, Pakistan, for the largely Muslim population of NW India
The British created 3 countries
India (largely Hindu)
Pakistan (largely Muslim)
East Pakistan - now Bangladesh
(also largely Muslim)
Millions of people moved to the nations where there religion was dominant.
Nearly 500,000 people were killed in religiously motivated violence, including Gandhi.
India and Pakistan continue to fight today mainly over the Kashmir region.
India and Jewish Zionist movement
Jewish Zionist Movement
Jewish people had lived on a land called Israel in a Roman-occupied area known as Palestine during the ancient period
Because of a series of wars and diasporas, the Jews were scattered across the world
During WWI, a group of Zionists (Jews who were nationalists and wanted a Jewish homeland) convinced a British leader, Foreign Secretary Arthur Balfour, that Jews should get this homeland
The Balfour Declaration decreed that Jews deserved a homeland in Palestine, but not at the cost of the displacement of the Palestinians (mostly Muslim).
Problems with Balfour declaration
Palestinians and Jews were supposed to divide the land that they both claimed
Russian Jews began arriving in large numbers in Palestine in the 1920s
By the beginnings of WWII, nearly 500,000 Jews had arrived in Palestine from Europe (many were fleeing the Nazis)
Palestinians became uneasy, though they still outnumbered the Jews, because the Jewish population had a lot of power because of donations coming in from all over the world
Israel is created
In 1948, the UN declared the creation of two Palestines, one for Jews and one for Muslims
Soon thereafter, six Arab countries (Egypt, Iraq, Syria, Lebanon, Saudi Arabia, and Yemen) attacked Israel.
The world was shocked when Israel not only held off the attack, but counter-attacked and took control of portions of Muslim Palestine.
Six Days War
In the Six Days' War of 1967, Israel took control of the West Bank from Jordan, the Sinai Peninsula and the Gaza strip from Egypt, and the Golan Heights from Syria.
During this war, Jerusalem (a holy city for both Jews and Muslims) came under the control of Israel
Camp David Accords
1977: Israel's Prime Minister signed an agreement with Egypt's president, Anwar Sadat, called the Camp David Accords.
Because of this agreement, Israel pulled out of the Sinai peninsula and Egypt became the first Arab nation to recognize Israel's right to exist
Many Arabs were unhappy and Sadat was assassinated