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World War II

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Amy Davis

on 2 April 2018

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Transcript of World War II

World War II
Build up to war
Treaty of Versailles
Great Depression
Rise of Hitler
Japan's Imperialism
Improved Military Technology and Tactics
The global balance of economic and political power shifted after WWII evolved into the Cold War
These bombs used incendiary devices and chemicals. Initial bomb would spread fire to surrounding areas.

People would lose consciousness and burn to death.

The firebombing of Tokyo was part of the American air assault against Japan in 1945.
Atomic Bomb
Theory of relativity
emphasized that a large amount of energy could be released from a small amount of matter
Unprecedented Deaths
Treaty of Versailles
Extreme reparations required of Germany

Demilitarization of Germany

Loss of Territory for Germany
Great Depression
In Europe, leads to new political systems and ideologies.

Used to end the war in the Pacific Theater
Germany takes control of Austria and Czechoslovakia in early 1939
Start of the War
Hitler signs the Non-Aggression Pact with Soviet Union dividing up Poland and the Balkans
Britain and France threaten war if Hitler invades Poland
Rise of Hitler
Alliance with Mussolini in Italy and Japan
Hitler invades Poland on September 1, 1939

radical authoritarian nationalism

borrows from socialism, instead of class conflict focus on conflict between nations/races

view political violence and war as a means to national unity.
Mussolini and Hitler
Marshall Plan
Europe in ruins
Atomic Bomb
Occupation of Germany
FDR starts a trade embargo (steel and oil) because of Japan's movements in China and SE Asia
Felt that they should control China and SE Asia, not Europeans
Japan thought if they could quickly gain control over Europe's colonial holdings in Asia they would have access to the necessary resources for defending their movements in China.
August 6th, 1945
August 9th, 1945
Spheres of influence
World War II is fought in two theaters
European Theater
Pacific Theater
4.7 miles of city were destroyed

30% of the population (70,000-80,000) were killed in less than a second.

An additional 30,000-85,000 died by the end of 1945 from radiation and burns

Explosion generated temperature of 7,050 degrees and winds of 624 mph

40,000-75,000 died in Nagasaki
Total death numbers vary widely, ranging from 50 million to 80 million people. Deadliest military conflict in history.
Rise of the US and USSR
Cold War and the Nuclear Age
Rise of Nationalism and Independence movements in Africa
Warsaw - 1945
Calais, France
Occupation of Germany
Very charismatic speaker

Joined the German Workers’ Party in 1919

Appointed Chancellor in 1933
US emerges as a superpower
US provided economic support to help rebuild Europe

Goals: restore European cities, build industry and remove trade barriers
Independence Movements
Independence in India
Started by Mohandas Gandhi in the 1920s
Organized non-violent protests against British colonial rule
Passive resistance Philosophy

While Gandhi was fighting for peace, religious tensions were increasing between Hindus and Muslims. Gandhi tried to unite them, but the Muslim league of India began to push for a seperate state
Britain granted independence to India in 1947

Gandhi wanted the subcontinent to remain united
Muslim leader, Muhammad Ali Jinnah, wanted to
form a second nation, Pakistan, for the largely Muslim population of NW India
The British created 3 countries
India (largely Hindu)
Pakistan (largely Muslim)
East Pakistan - now Bangladesh
(also largely Muslim)

Millions of people moved to the nations where there religion was dominant.
Nearly 500,000 people were killed in religiously motivated violence, including Gandhi.
India and Pakistan continue to fight today mainly over the Kashmir region.
India and Jewish Zionist movement

Jewish Zionist Movement

Jewish people had lived on a land called Israel in a Roman-occupied area known as Palestine during the ancient period

Because of a series of wars and diasporas, the Jews were scattered across the world

During WWI, a group of Zionists (Jews who were nationalists and wanted a Jewish homeland) convinced a British leader, Foreign Secretary Arthur Balfour, that Jews should get this homeland

The Balfour Declaration decreed that Jews deserved a homeland in Palestine, but not at the cost of the displacement of the Palestinians (mostly Muslim).

Problems with Balfour declaration
Palestinians and Jews were supposed to divide the land that they both claimed

Russian Jews began arriving in large numbers in Palestine in the 1920s

By the beginnings of WWII, nearly 500,000 Jews had arrived in Palestine from Europe (many were fleeing the Nazis)
Palestinians became uneasy, though they still outnumbered the Jews, because the Jewish population had a lot of power because of donations coming in from all over the world

Israel is created

In 1948, the UN declared the creation of two Palestines, one for Jews and one for Muslims

Soon thereafter, six Arab countries (Egypt, Iraq, Syria, Lebanon, Saudi Arabia, and Yemen) attacked Israel.
The world was shocked when Israel not only held off the attack, but counter-attacked and took control of portions of Muslim Palestine.

Six Days War

In the Six Days' War of 1967, Israel took control of the West Bank from Jordan, the Sinai Peninsula and the Gaza strip from Egypt, and the Golan Heights from Syria.
During this war, Jerusalem (a holy city for both Jews and Muslims) came under the control of Israel

Camp David Accords

1977: Israel's Prime Minister signed an agreement with Egypt's president, Anwar Sadat, called the Camp David Accords.

Because of this agreement, Israel pulled out of the Sinai peninsula and Egypt became the first Arab nation to recognize Israel's right to exist

Many Arabs were unhappy and Sadat was assassinated
Full transcript