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Freedom Rides 1961 - Suman Rida
Transcript of Freedom Rides 1961 - Suman Rida
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All the campaigns were non-Violent
What Core did and
what it taught its members
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These campaigns aimed at desegregating public transport throughout the South.
Campaigns were organized by Congress Of Racial Equality (CORE) in 1961.
The aim of the campaigns was to turn the 'de jure' victories of Morgan v. Virginia and Baynton v. Virgina into 'de Facto'
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The Freedom Rides
Segregation In The USA
The first Freedom Ride took place on May 4, 1961 when seven blacks and six whites left Washington, D.C., on two public buses bound for the Deep South.
They were called the 'Freedom Riders'
They intended to test the Supreme Court's ruling in Boynton v. Virginia (1960), which declared segregation in interstate bus and rail stations unconstitutional.
In the first few days, the riders encountered only minor hostility, but in the second week the riders were severely beaten.
Outside Anniston, Alabama, one of their buses was burned, and in Birmingham several dozen whites attacked the riders
What Freedom Rides is about
With the intervention of the U.S. Justice Department, most of CORE's Freedom Riders were evacuated from Birmingham, Alabama to New Orleans.
CORE Leaders decided that letting violence end the trip would send the wrong signal to the country.
So, they reinforced the pair of remaining riders with volunteers, and the trip continued.
The group traveled from Birmingham to Montgomery without incident, but on their arrival in Montgomery they were attacked by a mob of more than 1000 whites (Ku Klux Klan).
Members of CORE
The police did nothing to help the freedom riders, also the doctors refused to give any first aid.
The hospitalized Freedom Riders, most of whom had been refused care, were removed from the hospital at 2 AM, because the staff feared the mob outside the hospital.
The local civil rights leader Rev. Fred Shuttlesworth organized several cars of blacks to rescue the injured Freedom Riders in defiance of the mob.
Why were all campaigns non-violent
Core needed sympathy of white citizens an d more members, being violent would've made them look bad in the eyes of other citizens.
Significance of freedom rides
They marked a new high point of co-operation
within the civil rights movements as they involved CORE (Congress Of Racial Equality) , SNCC (Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee) AND SCLC (Southern Christian Leadership Conference).
The Freedom riders achieved a significant victory by forcing Attorney General 'Robert Kennedy' to enforce desegregation of the interstate bus services.