Loading presentation...

Present Remotely

Send the link below via email or IM


Present to your audience

Start remote presentation

  • Invited audience members will follow you as you navigate and present
  • People invited to a presentation do not need a Prezi account
  • This link expires 10 minutes after you close the presentation
  • A maximum of 30 users can follow your presentation
  • Learn more about this feature in our knowledge base article

Do you really want to delete this prezi?

Neither you, nor the coeditors you shared it with will be able to recover it again.


The Caribbean

No description

Honors MUS313

on 21 April 2015

Comments (0)

Please log in to add your comment.

Report abuse

Transcript of The Caribbean

The Caribbean
Thousands of Islands
The Bahamas to Venezuela
The Caribbean
Rainfall May-August
Diverse languages and cultures
Indigenous groups: Arawak, Carib
European enslavement
Main Language: Colonial Countries
Linguistic Blends: Creole, English, French
Widespread poverty
Income: Agriculture
Major Tourism Site
Mix of traditional and contemporary
Largest Islands: Cuba, Jamaica, Hispaniola, and Puerto Rico
Arrival: Haiti
West Hispaniola
Population: 7 million
Official Language: French

The Republic of Cuba
Official Language: Spanish
93 Miles from the coast of Florida
Nation is comprised of Main island of Cuba, Isla de la Juventud and several archipelagos.
Natives are Tainos and Arawak
Population of 11 million.
Found in 1492 by Christopher Columbus
Colonization began in 1511
Spaniards forced natives to work in the gold mines.
Rebellions, disease, and starvation reduced the native population from to 500 survivors by 1550.
First African slaves arrived in 1522 to work on sugar plantations.
Path to Revolution
Friction between Spain and U.S. over Cuba led to Spanish-American war in 1898.
Post war, U.S. controlled Cuba until 1902.
Cuba achieves independence in 1902.
In 1952, U.S. back sponsorship of Fulgencio Batista into power, who turns government into dictatorship. Cuban Revolution begins.
In 1959, Fidel Castro removes Batista from power in the final act of the Cuban Revolution.
Contemporary Cuba
Since 1965 the country has been governed as a single party state by the Communist party.
Cuba is the only remaining Marxist-Leninist state to receive a "very high" human development ranking from the UN.
Havana, Cuba's capital, has no restrictions on liquor, prostitution, or gambling.
One of the most enticing cities in the Western Hemisphere
Home to many grand hotels, resorts, and casinos.
Cuba was well known during prohibition era for rich North Americans wishing to dodge restrictions on alcohol consumption.
Aural Analysis
Cuba's music is distinctive because it has a successful blending of European and African music traditions.
African Santeria: Syncretistic religion combining traditional African/Yoruba practices with Roman Catholicism.
Son and Guaracha: Mixes African rhythms with European melodies and harmony.
Danzon: European genre
Cuban Son: Dancable piece of music that starats with a stringed instrument, usually a guitar.
Cuban Son
Joined by brass and percussion instruments.
Usually a trumpet or hollow-sounding drum
Includes a prominent sharp clap and gentle scraping clap.
Cuban Son migrated to Havana in 1910, where it adopted clave rhythm of Rumba.
Recorded in 1980 in Santiago, in the Oriente province.
Linked the Afro-Cuban underclasses with mainstream society.
Cuban Son
Tres: Guitar like instrument with three courses of two strings each.
Claves: Pair of hard-wood sticks struck together.
Maracas: Pair of small gourds whose seeds create a sound when shaken.
Marimubula/Botija: Wooden box with large metal lamellae plucked to provide bass pitches.
Bongos: Pair of small single-headed drums.
Timbales: European derived metal-framed drums of the military snare family.
Trumpets and Cornets are also common.
Guiro: Gourd with ridges scraped into the side.
Aural Analysis
The son was transformed into an urban, big band form
Included many jazz instruments
Pioneer of "Latin Music"
Montuno: Where soloist alternates with group
Development of Cuban music is tied to dance.
Cuban derived dances include the Bolero, Cha Cha Cha, Mambo, and Rumba
Rumba: Basic and Easiest. Translates to "Party"
Son, with Montuno section, was a foundation for "Salsa" music.
In 1938, Cuban musicians Orestes and Cachao Lopez created a "Danzon" song titled 'Mambo''
Cuban Dancer Perez Prado became associated with this type of music.
Prado and his musicians began recording many new "Mambo" songs, which evolved into the "Mambo" dance style we know today.
Pierre Jean Phillipe Zurcher-Margolle, also known as Monsieur Pierre, was a professional dancer in France who helped introduce the Latin American styles of dance to Europe.
Monsieur Pierre is accredited for bringing the Rumba and Cha Cha Cha into mainstream society.
Spanish Origin
Colonized by France 1697
Revolution: 1794
Independence: 1804
Official Language: French
Creole - French, Spanish, Portugese, English, African tribal languages
Natural Disasters
African Descent
Division of Class
Music and dance rituals
Site 1 : Vodou Ritual from Haiti
Vodou Ritual From Haiti
Creole and Langaj
Polyrhythmic Percussion
Ceremony: Rara
Vodou Ritual From Haiti
Part 1
Part 2
Rada, bas, kloch, ason
Multiple instruments pulse
Wooden sticks
Interlocking melody
Cultural Considerations
Vodou = religious system
Natural Forces
Legba and Ogoun
Dancing, singing, possession
Arrival: Jamaica
White sandy beaches, classy resorts, and pure poverty.
Slightly smaller than Connecticut.
Population of approximately 2.5 million people.
Tropical--hot and humid.
Most widely spoken language is english.
Where it all Began
Discovered by Christopher Columbus in 1494.
Native people, the Taino, were gradually exterminated.
Seized by England in 1655.
Plantation economy based around sugar, cocoa, and coffee.
Large imports of African slaves.
With the abolition of slavery in 1834, Jamaica began its slow road to independance, which it achieved in 1962.
Where Jamaica is Today
Deteriorating economic conditions since the 1970's.
Gang violence, drug trafficking, and crime rings.
Overpopulation and political struggles.
Large tourism industry.
Majority of the population is of African descent.
Despite difficulty, Jamaica still maintains rich musical traditions.
The Music of Jamaica: Reggae
First Impressions:
Easygoing "walking" feel.
"offbeat" emphasis
2 and 4
International recognition of artists such as Bob Marley.
Politically and socially concious music.
More than just pop music, reggae is often a part of a spiritual system of beliefs and a way of life.
The Music of Jamaica: Reggae
Aural Analysis:
Consists of familiar instruments
routine rock/pop--electric guitars and bass, drum set, electric keyboards, occasional saxophone or trumpet, and "back-up" singers.
Use of different timbres.
Electric guitar emphasizes the "treble."
Snare drum "tight" without snare wires.
Lead vocalist's lyrics convey a message to the audience.
The Music of Jamaica: Reggae
Cultural Considerations:
Commercially successful.
Origins are from a known, individual creator.
Musicians believe that their music has power to initiate change.
Opportunity to educate audience about issues.
Torchbearer by Carlos Jones:
Pays homage to Bob Marley, the most famous figure associated with reggae music.
Bob Marley
One of reggae's most important stars.
Known for his strong articulation of Rastafarian concepts.
Started his career as "The Wailers."
Died at 36.
Left a lasting legacy for reggae music.
Reggae: More than just Music

Trinidad and Tobago
Not just Jamaican pop, reggae is a large part of the island's history and culture.
It often politically and socially challenging in its themes.
Draws from the Rastafari religion, rock, blues, evangelical hymns, and African drumming and singing.
Part of the West Indies
Capital: Port-of-Spain
5 times smaller than Hawaii
Trinidad is 50 mi. x 30 mi.
Tobago is 25 mi. x 8 mi.
Population: 1.3 million
Language: English
Religions: Christian, Muslim, Hindu, African rituals
Trinidad and Tobago
Discovered by Columbus in 1498
Natives disappeared after Spanish colonists brought slaves
French refugees
Britain took control in 1797
colony until 1962
republic in 1976
Slavery abolished in 1843
Significant populations of Indian and African, some Chinese
Trinidad and Tobago
Economy mostly petroleum
Large natural gas reserves
Trinidad's Great Pitch Lake
Tobago's beaches for swimmers and surfers
sugar, coconuts, citrus fruits, rice, poultry, vegetables
Calypso Music
Rastafarianism: A new Religion
Derived from West African Kaiso music
Developed for Carnival
African and French influence
French creole language
topical song or musical commentary on current events or scandals
parody, satire, and ridicule
"Money is King"
begins with dance band
trumpet, clarinet, violin, piano, guitar, electric bass, conga drum
male vocalist
five stanzas with eight lines
melodic structure of AAAAABCDE
message: if you have money you can get away with anything, but if you are poor, a dog is better off than you
relaxed attitude
"Age is Just a Number"
Marcus Gorvey
"Look to Africa, where a black king will be crowned."
"Back to Africa"
Ras Tafari Mekonnen
People must be delivered by Jah (God) to Zion.
Ethiopia became Zion
Red, green and gold.
Rastafarians--followers of this religion (a.k.a. Rastas).
Generally disliked by establishment
Rastafari languange is often used in reggae.
Not every reggae musician is a Rastafarian, but they are all sympathetic to the spiritual ideals.
Before Reggae
by Mighty Sparrow
Soca Music
mix of calypso, rock, reggae, funk, and soul
less consequential words
more danceable
percussion, electric and bass guitars, sometimes horn section
"Hot, Hot, Hot"
"Big People Party"
Steel Band (Pan)
made of steel drums (pan) and sometimes rhythm section
leading melodic pan
harmony pan
bass line by bass pan
conventional drum set, conga drum, automobile brake drums, maracas, claves, güiro, cowbell
energetic, highly rhythmic, pop music flavored OR serene and classical
The Pan
made from oil drums left behind
British ban on drums during Carnival
higher pitched drums are smaller than lower pitched
national instrument of Trinidad since 1992
mostly played by amateurs learning by rote from the arranger
"Jump Up"
Carnival music, "breakaway" dancing
full of syncopation
steel drums, electric bass, drum set, brake drum
Derived from earlier types of music.
Rock steady
Christian hymns
Rastafarian religious meetings
Cumina religion
Term "reggae" coined by Toots Hibbert
From Reggae to Dancehall to "Dubstep"
The Caribbean
Ban on reggae performances.
Vinyl recordings.
Recordings played at party venues
DJ turned up bass and rhythm, turned down melody, and removed vocals to allow for "talking."
"Dub" poetry.
Electronic influence.
Modern pop music.
Bruno Mars--"Liquor Store Blues."
Diplo and Major Lazer
Dubstep and the EDM scene.
Arts and culture come from the mixing of diverse peoples
Caribbean music is appreciated worldwide
Site 2: Kompa
African rhythm
European ballroom dance
Compas - beat/pulse
Evolving syles
Traditional Kompa
Pulsing drums
Popular Kompa
Hip-Hop and Rap
Westernized culture
Full transcript