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Elements of Poetry as Illustrated by Eminem's "Lose Yourself"

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James Tilton

on 16 March 2016

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Transcript of Elements of Poetry as Illustrated by Eminem's "Lose Yourself"

Elements of Poetry
What is rhyme?
Rhyme
occurs when two words contain the same sound at the end of the words.
Most, but not all, poetry contains rhymes.
There are five different kinds of rhyme in poetry: end rhyme, internal rhyme, true rhyme, slant rhyme, and eye rhyme.

Poetic Language
Figurative Language
In both poetry and
prose (non-poetic writing)
, not all words are to be taken literally.
Figurative language is meant to make a point, not to state a literal fact.
Metaphors, similes, and hyperboles are all examples of figurative language.
Representative Language
In poetry, everyday words and objects are often used to represent something else.
Two types of representative language are allusion and symbolism.
Both allusion and symbolism can occur in prose, although they occur far more frequently in poetry.

Vivid Language
Because poems are so short, poets must attempt to convey emotions and situations in as few words as possible.
To accomplish this, poets use vivid language and precise vocabulary.
Three types of vivid poetic language include imagery, personification, repetition and onomatopoeia.
Meter
In poetry,
meter involves counting the number of syllables in a line and marking the syllables that are stressed (or emphasized).
Most traditional poetry, and even some modern poetry, features lines with the same number of syllables.
The name for the meter of a particular poem depended both on how syllables there in each line and the pattern by which these syllables were stressed.
The most common type of meter,
made famous by Shakespeare
, is
iambic pentameter
, which features
ten syllables in each line with unstressed/stressed pattern.
Diction
Diction refers simply to the poet's use of words.
It includes
both the words that the poet uses and the way that the poet arranges these words
.
The two types of poetic diction are
formal
(fancy) and
informal
(casual).
To discover a poem's diction, look closely at the words being used in the poem. If those words are words that the President would use when speaking to the nation, the diction is formal. If they are words that people you know use everyday, the diction is informal.
What type of diction is Eminem using in "Lose Yourself"?
Poems that don't rely on end rhymes at the end of each line are called
free verse poems
.
Free verse poetry has become especially popular in the last one hundred years. Before that, poems almost always featured very structured end rhymes.
Free verse gives the poet more room for creativity because it doesn't have the limits of traditional poetry.
Most modern songs are free verse, meaning that they can rhyme, but they don't have to.
End rhyme or internal rhyme?
Every rhyme in poetry is either an end rhyme or an internal rhyme, depending on where that rhyme is located in the poem.
A rhyme can only be one of these two. It can't be both!
End rhymes
are located at the end of different lines of poetry.


Internal rhymes
are located within a single line of poetry.

End rhyme or internal rhyme?
True rhyme, slant rhyme, or eye rhyme?
In addition to being either an internal or end rhyme, every rhyme in poetry is also either a true rhyme, slant rhyme, or eye rhyme.
A rhyme can only be one of these three.
True rhymes
actually have the same exact sound.

Slant rhymes
have similar, but slightly different, sounds.

Eye rhymes
look like they would have the same sound, but actually have different sounds.
Identifying Rhyme
Every rhyme has two parts.

It is both
an
end
rhyme
or
an
internal
rhyme
and
a
true
rhyme, a
slant
rhyme,
or
an
eye
rhyme.

Thus, there could a true end rhyme or an internal eye rhyme, but there can never be an internal end rhyme or a true slant rhyme.


Does every poem rhyme?
Practice Set #1
"The whole
crowd
goes so
loud
."



"You own it, you better never let it
go
You only get one shot, do not miss your chance to
blow
,
This opportunity comes once in a lifetime,
yo
."

Practice Set #2
"He's grown farther from home, he's no
father
.
He goes home and barely knows his own
daughter
."



"Baby
mama

drama
's screaming on."

Practice Set #3
"I cannot grow old in Salem's
lot
.
So here I go, it's my
shot
.
Feet, fail me not, this may be the only opportunity that I
got
."

"Make me king, as we move
toward a
new world
order
."

"Trying to
feed
and water my
seed
."

"The soul's
escaping
through this hole that is
gaping
."

Inversion
In order to give their poems end rhymes, poets often switch up the order of words.
This process is called
inversion
. Inversion is when words in a poem are placed out of order so that the poem can rhyme.
Consider the following example:

Through this hole that is
gaping
,
This world is mine for the
taking
.

In conventional English, those lines would be written in the following:

Through this
gaping
hole,
This world is mine for the
taking
.

End
or
internal?
True, slant,
or
eye?
End
or
internal?
True, slant,
or
eye?
End
or
internal?
True, slant,
or
eye?
End
or
internal?
True, slant,
or
eye?
True internal
True end
Slant end
True internal
Review
What is Poetry?
Many students have a limited and outdated understanding of poetry.
William Wordsworth, one of the greatest poets of all time, defined poetry as the "
overflow of powerful feelings
." Often, poems will capture these feelings through rhyme and rhythm.
Thus,
poetry focuses on creating or capturing feelings and moments
. Very rarely will poetry tell a story.
One of the most common forms of poetry today is song. Every time you listen to your iPod or radio, you are listening to poetry.
Poetry is divided into
lines
(not sentences) and
stanzas
(not paragraphs).

What is poetry?
What is poetry divided into?
What is the definition of rhyme?
What are the five kinds of rhyme?
What is the difference between end rhyme and internal rhyme?
What kind of rhyme occurs when two words have the exact same ending sound?
What kind of rhyme occurs when two words have a similar ending sound?
What kind of rhyme occurs when two words look like they should have the same ending sound but don't?
What is the name given to poems that don't rely on rhyme?
What is the term used for when words are switched out of order to create end rhymes?
ropes, dope, broke
sweaty, spaghetti, already, heavy
love, move, stove
I got to formulate a plot before I end up in jail or
shot
.
Success is my only motherf***ing option; failure's
not
.
I
got
to formulate a
plot
before I end up in jail or
shot
.
Rhyme is not the only type of poetic language.
Poets also rely on similar sounds at the beginning and middle of words
, not just the end.
There are three techniques for this kind of poetic language: alliteration, assonance, consonance.
Alliteration
Alliteration occurs when several words in a line start with the same letter.
Although these words don't rhyme, they do have similar sounds, which helps create poetic language..


Alliteration is commonly used outside of poetry
as well-- Bed, Bath, and Beyond; American Apparel; Krispy Kreme; calm, cool, and collected.
Why do you think alliteration is used often by businesses?
It only grows
h
arder,
h
omies grow
h
otter.
B
est
b
elieve, somebody's
p
aying the
p
ied
p
iper.
Assonance
Assonance occurs when the same vowel sound is used frequently in a line
--vowel sound, not a vowel.
Although these words don't rhyme, they do have similar sounds, which helps create poetic language.




What is the difference between a vowel and a vowel sound?
The wh
o
le cr
ow
d g
oe
s s
o
l
ou
d.
Sn
a
p b
a
ck to re
a
lity.
He g
oe
s back to his m
o
bile h
o
me.
B
a
ck to the l
a
b
a
gain.
Consonance
Consonance occurs when the same consonant sound is used through a line
--consonant sound, not consonant.
Although these words don't rhyme, they do have similar sounds, which helps created poetic language.




What is the difference between assonance and consonance?
T
ee
t
er
t
o
tt
er caugh
t
up be
t
ween.
Somebody's
p
aying the
p
ied
p
i
p
er.
The
m
usic, the
m
o
m
ent.
Review
What is alliteration?
What is assonance?
What is consonance?
What is the most important difference between alliteration and assonance/consonance?
What is the most important difference between assonance and consonance?
What is the difference between a vowel and a vowel sound? Give an example.
What is the difference between a consonant and a consonant sound? Give an example.
As discussed in previous classes,
a simile is a comparison that used the words
like,

as,
or
than (bigger than, better than, greater than, etc.)
.
Here's a simple memory trick: simile=similike.
Although similes are often used in prose, they are considered a type of poetic language because of their ability to quickly create powerful feelings.
Simile
As discussed in previous classes,
a metaphor is a comparison that does not used the words
like
,
as
, or
than
.
Metaphors are a type of poetic language because of their ability to quickly create powerful feelings.
Metaphor
Hyperbole occurs when exaggeration is used intentionally to make a point.
Hyperbole is a type of language that is so obviously exaggerated that is not supposed to be taken literally.
Hyperbole
What is prose?
What is figurative language?
What are the three types of figurative language?
What is a simile?
What is a metaphor?
What is the difference between a simile and a metaphor?
What is hyperbole?
Review
Tear the motherf***ing roof off
like two dogs caged
.
I'm
like a snail
. I've got to formulate a plot.
His h**s don't want him no more. He's
cold product
.
Baby, you're a
firework
.
My heart's a
stereo
.
You're my
kryptonite
.
This whole world's mine for the taking.

This opportunity comes once in a lifetime.
Allusion
Allusion occurs when a poem or story mentions or hints at a person or event that exists outside the world of the poem or story.
In allusion, the people or events can be real or fictional, just as long as they can't be fully understood without outside knowledge.
Researching these allusions leads to greater understanding.
Symbolism
Symbolism occurs when an everyday object in a poem or story represents something deeper
, usually a person or emotion.
Although both are representative language, allusion and symbolism are different.
Allusion references things that exist outside the world of the poem; symbolism uses easily-understood objects to represent something deeper.
Symbolism or Allusion?
Review
What is allusion?
What is symbolism?
What are some examples of allusion that you see in your songs?
What are some examples of symbolism that you see in your songs?
What are some differences between allusion and symbolism?
Best believe somebody's
paying the pied piper
.
The clock
's run out.

Teeter totter
, caught up between being a father and a prima donna.
The flower Katniss sees after Peeta throws her bread


Roman names like Caesar, Flavia, Portia, and Cinna


The mockingjay (especially in the last two books)



Symbolism
Symbolism
Allusion
Imagery occurs when a poet describes a moment that can be seen
, rather than merely heard or felt.
These images often focus on color and light.
Because poems are so short, imagery can often be reduced to a single line or phrase.
These images help create the mood or feeling of the poem.


When trying to find imagery, ask yourself, "What in this poem can I visualize in my mind's eye?"
Imagery
Personification occurs when a poet or author gives human characteristics to something that is not human.
This helps gives personality or emotion to animals or objects in a poem or short story.
Personification
Onomatopoeia occurs when the name of a thing copies the sound that it is describing
. For example, "meow," "moo," "tick," and "pow" all are words that copy the sound they are describing.
Onomatopoeia is sometimes used in poetry because it allows the poet to describe a sound in a single word rather than in many words.
Onomatopoeia
What is imagery?
What are some examples of imagery from your songs?
What is personification?
What are some examples of personification from your songs?
What is onomatopoeia?
What are some examples of onomatopoeia from your songs?
Review
His palms are sweaty. Knees weak, arms are heavy.
There's vomit on his sweater already, mom's spaghetti.
"He'd better capture this moment and hope
it don't pass him
."
"These f***ing walls must be
talking
."--When I'm Gone
"This f***ing black cloud still
follows me around
."--Not Afraid
Time's up! Over!
Bloah!
The beat goes on.
Da da dum.
"
If
mu
sic
be
the
food
of
love,
play
on."
Review
What is meter?
What is another meaning of stressed (as referring to syllables)?
What is the most common type of meter?
What does this meter feature?
Who made this meter famous?
Review
What is diction?
What are the two parts of diction?
What are the two types of diction?
What is the meaning of formal?
Who is the meaning of informal?
What trick can you use to decide if a poem's diction is formal or informal?
What are three formal events you might attending in your lifetime?
Review
What is poetry?
What does poetry attempt to capture?
What is poetry divided into?
What is rhyme?
What is the difference between an end rhyme and an internal rhyme?
What is the difference between a true rhyme and a slant rhyme?
What is an eye rhyme?
What is the name for poems that don't rely heavily on rhyme?
Review
What is inversion?
What is alliteration?
What is assonance?
What is consonance?
What is prose?
What is a metaphor?
What is a simile?
What is hyperbole?
What is allusion?
Review
What is symbolism?
What is imagery?
What is repetition?
What is personification?
What is onomatopoeia?
What is meter?
What is the most famous meter? What does it feature?
What is diction?
What are the two types of diction, and what do they mean?
On a scale from one to five, how much interest do you have in poetry?
On a scale from one to five, how much interest do you think the average high school student has in poetry?
On a scale from one to five, how relevant is poetry to your everyday life?
On a scale from one to five, how impressed are you by the ability of a good poet?
On a scale from one to five, how often do you think teenagers encounter poetry in their everyday lives?
What three words do you think best describe poetry?
If you had to pick, would you describe poetry as interesting or boring?
If you had to pick, would you describe poetry as relevant or as outdated?
Repetition occurs when a poet uses the same line or phrase multiple times in a poem.
Repetition is often used in poetry because it shows the reader of the poem just how important the poet considers a line, phrase, or word to be.
Repetition
You better lose yourself in the music, the moment
You own it, you better never let it go
You only get one shot, do not miss your chance to blow
This opportunity comes once in a lifetime yo.
x6
You're my
kryptonite
.
It's payback,
Russell Wilson falling way back
In the draft
, turn nothing into something.
Full transcript