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Vaccinations

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Sabrina Pierre

on 21 November 2014

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Transcript of Vaccinations

Vaccines mimic infections/diseases without actually inducing them.
How do vaccines work?
Vaccinations
They fight off infections. They protect you from vaccines.
White Blood Cells
Live vaccines ~ they fight viruses. They contain a version of the living virus that has been weakened so that it does not cause serious disease in people with healthy immune systems. The measles, mumps, and chickenpox vaccine are examples of live vaccines.
­Inactivated vaccines ~ they fight viruses. They are made by inactivating (killing) the virus during the process of making the vaccine. The polio vaccine is an example an inactivated vaccine.
Toxoid vaccines ~ they prevent diseases caused by bacteria that produce toxins (poisons) in the body. The diphtheria and tetanus vaccines are examples of the toxiod vaccine.
Subunit vaccines ~ contain only the essential antigens of the germ necessary for the vaccine. The pertussis (whooping cough) vaccine is an example of a subunit vaccine.
Conjugate vaccines ~ they fight off bacteria. The bacteria in a vaccine have antigens with an outer coating of sugar-like substances called polysaccharides. An example of this type of vaccine is the Haemophilus influenzae type B (Hib) vaccine.
Types of Vaccines
What is a vaccine?
How do vaccines work?
Why do some people believe in vaccines while others don't?

A vaccine is a substance used to help your immune system build immunity against certain diseases.
What is a vaccine?:
Responsible white blood cells:
Macrophages
B-lymphocytes (B-cells)
T-lymphocytes (T-cells)

Diseases had already begun to disappear before vaccines were introduced because of better hygiene and sanitation.
The majority of people who get diseases have been vaccinated
Vaccines cause harmful side effects and may have long lasting effects people don’t even know about.
Vaccines have virtually eliminated diseases in the US so there isn’t any need for them.
Giving a child multiple vaccinations for different diseases at the same time increases the risk of harmful side effects.

Misconceptions about Vaccines:
A German study on vaccinated and unvaccinated children
Vaccination Myth:
There's a myth that vaccinations cause autism. However, there's no actual proof of this myth.
"Concerns about Autism." Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 26 Mar. 2014. Web. 10 June 2014. <http://www.cdc.gov/vaccinesafety/Concerns/Autism/Index.html>.

"Health Care Personnel Flu Vaccination, Internet Panel Survey, United States, November 2011."Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 05 Dec. 2011. Web. 11 June 2014. <http://www.cdc.gov/flu/fluvaxview/health-care-personnel.htm>.

"New Study: Vaccinated Children Have 2 to 5 Times More Diseases and Disorders Than Unvaccinated Children | Health Impact News." New Study: Vaccinated Children Have 2 to 5 Times More Diseases and Disorders Than Unvaccinated Children | Health Impact News. N.p., n.d. Web. 10 June 2014. <http://healthimpactnews.com/2011/new-study-vaccinated-children-have-2-to-5-times-more-diseases-and-disorders-than-unvaccinated-children/>.

Offit, Paul A. "Vaccines and Autism: A Tale of Shifting Hypotheses." Oxford Journals (2009): n. pag. Feb. 2009. Web. 11 June 2014. <http://cid.oxfordjournals.org/content/48/4/456.full>.
Bibliography
"Vaccine Side Effects and Adverse Events." History of Vaccines RSS. N.p., n.d. Web. 09 June 2014. <http://www.historyofvaccines.org/content/articles/vaccine-side-effects-and-adverse-events>.

"Immune System." T Cells. N.p., 02 Oct. 2008. Web. 08 June 2014. <http://www.niaid.nih.gov/topics/immunesystem/immunecells/pages/tcells.aspx>.

"Beginners Guide to T Cells." Beginners Guide. N.p., n.d. Web. 11 June 2014. <http://www.tcells.org/beginners/tcells/>.

"How Vaccines Prevent Diseases." Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 08 Mar. 2012. Web. 09 June 2014. <http://www.cdc.gov/vaccines/parents/vaccine-decision/prevent-diseases.html>.

Smith, J. C. "Understanding How Morphogens Work." Philosophical Transactions: Biological Sciences 363.1495, Calcium Signals and Developmental Patterning (2008): 1387-392. Feb. 2013. Web. 11 June 2014.

Bibliography continued
The Spread of Viruses. Digital image. N.p., n.d. Web. 11 June 2014. <http://2.bp.blogspot.com/-EEbmrtUUmIc/UAmJifqQ5pI/AAAAAAAAEm4/54FyBnvi6G8/s1600/vaccine_no-vaccine.jpg>.

Vaccination Process. Digital image. PBS. N.p., n.d. Web. 11 June 2014.
<http://pbs.twimg.com/media/BO8H2Y8CUAAXwng.jpg:large>

How a Vaccine Works. Digital image. N.p., n.d. Web. 11 June 2014.
<http://vaccinesautism.files.wordpress.com/2011/06/how-a-vaccine-works-good.png>.

Vaccines Work. Digital image. N.p., n.d. Web. 11 June 2014.
<http://sciencebasedpharmacy.files.wordpress.com/2013/05/vaccine-infographic.gif>.

Vaccine Comparison. Digital image. N.p., n.d. Web. 11 June 2014.
<http://wileywitch.com/wp-content/uploads/2013/05/vaccine-infographic.jpg>.

Penn and Teller on Vaccinations. Perf. Penn and Teller. Youtube. N.p., 20 Aug. 2010. Web. 3 June 2014.

Herlihy, Stacy Mintzer, and E. Allison. Hagood. Your Baby's Best Shot: Why Vaccines Are Safe and save Lives. Lanham: Rowman & Littlefield Group, 2012. Print.

Bibliography continued
Flu Vaccine
Common Side Effects of Vaccines
Rashes
Fevers
Swelling
Death (1-2 people per million)

Edward Jenner
Credited with first successful vaccine
You get injected with the vaccine which is a killed or weakened strain of a disease.
Macrophages are white blood cells that ingest foreign material (germs) such as bacteria, viruses, dead or dying cells. So when you get vaccinated your macrophages attack the pathogen. The macrophages leave behind antigens.
Antigens are foreign substances that were left behind by your macrophages, they stimulate antibodies. Antibodies are proteins used by the immune system to identify and neutralize foreign material. Antibodies neutralize the antigens left behind by the macrophages. Antibodies are produced by B-lymphocytes (B-cells). B-cells are another type of white blood cells.

The Process of a Vaccine
The Process of a Vaccine Part 2
T-lymphocytes (T-cells) are defensive white blood cell. They recognize antigens as foreign material. They then alert other cells of the presence of the foreign material. T-cells also attack any infected cells left behind in your body by the vaccination.
T-cells and B-cells memorize the pathogen induced by vaccinations, so the next time your body encounters the same infection your immune system will be able to respond against the infection/bacteria more quickly and efficiently.

Edward Jenner was an English physician (surgeon) and scientist, he was the first person to develop the first successful vaccine for smallpox in 1798.
Jenner theorized that cowpox protected people from smallpox. Cowpox is a disease people caught from milking cows. Cowpox is a similar disease to smallpox, but much less virulent.
To test his theory; on May 14, 1796 Jenner took the pus from the blisters of a milkmaid who had contracted cowpox and inoculated an 8-year-old boy, James Phipps, with cowpoxs. A month later, Jenner inoculated James Phipps with the pus from a man with smallpox, but Phipps did not contract the disease. Nothing happened to the boy.
Edward Jenner Information
Vaccine History
The first signs of inoculation was found in china. The Chinese employed smallpox inoculation dating back to 1000 CE. Inoculation was practiced in Africa and Turkey before it spread to Europe and the Americas.
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